Seabird fishing-related mortality by conservation status (2006/7 to 2012/13)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1703
6
Added
21 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 21 Oct 2016.

Along with sea lions, fur seals, and dolphins, seabirds are the protected species most directly affected by fisheries in New Zealand waters (exclusive economic zone and territorial sea). Estimating seabird deaths from bycatch in commercial fishing is one way of assessing the pressure some seabird species face from current fishing practices. About one-third of our 92 resident seabird species and subspecies are considered to be threatened with extinction.
The fishing-related mortality category is derived from a semi-quantitative risk assessment conducted by Richard and Abraham (2015). We are using the threat rating assigned by Richard and Abraham (2015) for Our Marine Environment 2016. The Environment Aotearoa 2015 report used the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) risk rating. This results in a change to risk rating for one threatened species, which has a medium rating in the report but a high rating from MPI. This species is the Stewart Island shag, Leucocarbo chalconotus.

Table ID 53506
Data type Table
Row count 113
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Coastal extreme waves (2008–15)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1699
11
Added
19 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 19 Oct 2016.

Extreme wave indexes estimate the occurrence of extreme wave events in coastal and oceanic waters. Extreme wave indexes estimate the number of times a significant wave height exceeds one of three threshold values for at least 12 hours in 24 marine regions. The three wave-height thresholds are four metres, six metres, and eight metres.
This indicator estimates the exceedances of wave-height thresholds for each year from 2008 to 2015 in coastal areas.
Significant wave height is a measure of the ‘typical’ wave height in a place over a time period. It is four times the standard deviation of the water surface if, for example, you were to measure water moving up and down a jetty piling for an hour. The largest individual wave will typically have a height around twice the significant wave height.
We use three wave-height thresholds because of the regional variation in extreme wave events. In general, the north experiences less exposure to consistently strong winds, and the waves generated by them, than the south. Four-metre tall waves are considered extreme in the northern-most parts of New Zealand but are more common in the south. For the southern-most parts of New Zealand, eight-metre waves better represent extreme wave events.

Table ID 53476
Data type Table
Row count 54
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Changes in the conservation status of indigenous marine species

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1682
14
Added
14 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2016.

Marine mammals, seabirds, and shorebirds are indicator species for the state of our marine environment. A decreasing population can indicate that the ecosystem is degrading. New Zealand has a diverse range of marine species, many of which are endemic to (only breed in) New Zealand. They are apex species (near the top of the food chain) and can thrive only if their ecosystems are healthy.
This measure reports on the number of indigenous marine species that have had a genuine change in conservation status between two monitoring periods (2008–11 and 2012–14). A change in a species’ conservation status reflects a change in its risk of extinction.

Table ID 53466
Data type Table
Row count 10
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Cumulative occupancy of key non-indigenous species by species (2009–2015)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1625
13
Added
19 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 19 Oct 2016.

Marine non-indigenous (exotic) species arrive in New Zealand waters on the hulls of international vessels (biofouling) or in discharged ballast waters. Some have little impact or cannot survive in New Zealand waters; others have a negative impact on our native habitats and species and become pests. They can compete with, and prey on, indigenous species, modify natural habitats, affect marine industries or can alter ecosystem processes. The potential impact of non-indigenous species on our native habitats and species means they could threaten our cultural and natural heritage, as well as economic activities such as commercial and recreational fishing, shellfish harvesting, and aquaculture.

Table ID 53492
Data type Table
Row count 56
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Nitrogen dioxide concentrations: New Zealand Transport Agency data, 2010–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1547
18
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas that is harmful to human health, ecosystems, and plants (US EPA, 2008). It can be emitted directly into the air but is often formed as a secondary pollutant when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) and ozone, which have their own health impacts. In New Zealand, motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the collective term for NO2 and NO. Because nitrogen dioxide concentrations are closely associated with vehicle emissions, it can be used as a proxy for other motor-vehicle pollutants such as benzene, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.
Human exposure to high nitrogen dioxide concentrations causes inflammation of the airways and respiratory problems, particularly asthma. Nitrogen dioxide causes leaf injury in plants exposed to high levels. It also contributes to forming secondary particulate matter and ozone, which have their own health impacts.
We report on observed nitrogen dioxide concentrations from the New Zealand Transport Agency’s (NZTA) monitoring network. NZTA has comprehensive coverage across New Zealand.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98426
Data type Table
Row count 828
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Health impacts of PM10, 2006 & 2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1491
8
Added
17 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 17 Oct 2018.

PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometres in diameter) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 can be inhaled and the largest particles in this size fraction are deposited in the upper airways, while the smaller ones can deposit deep in the lungs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung problems have a higher risk of health effects from PM10 exposure. Health effects include decreased lung function or heart attack, and mortality.
We report on the modelled number of premature deaths for adults (30+ years), hospitalisations, and restricted activity days for people of all ages for years 2006 and 2016 only. The model only includes impacts that result from exposure to PM10 that comes from human activities.
We focus on PM10 from human activities because these sources can be managed, unlike PM from natural sources such as sea salt.
• Premature deaths are those, often preventable, occurring before a person reaches the age they could be expected to live to.
• Hospitalisations relate to those for respiratory and cardiac illnesses (not including cases leading to premature death).
• Restricted activity days occur when symptoms are sufficient to limit usual activities such as work or study. These days aren’t shared evenly across the population – people with asthma or other respiratory conditions would likely have more restricted activity days.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98462
Data type Table
Row count 12
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Natural sources of particulate matter, 2000–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1454
11
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) is made up of solid and liquid particles in the air. It is grouped according to its size – PM10 is less than 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter; PM2.5 is less than 2.5 µm in diameter. Health effects from exposure to PM include lung and cardiac disease, and premature death.
Natural sources of PM include sea salt, dust (airborne soil, also called crustal material), secondary sulphate, pollen, black carbon from wild fires, and volcanic ash. There is little evidence that sea salt particles themselves are harmful (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) although whether sea salt that has interacted with urban air pollutants is harmful is not known. PM can also be produced by human activities, such as dust from construction or unsealed roads, but this is not considered natural because it comes from human activity.
Natural sources of PM are important because although they cannot be managed they still contribute to ambient concentrations, which are subject to the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality (NESAQ). Exceedances of the NESAQ occur when the 24-hour average PM10 concentration exceeds 50 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). There is no NESAQ for PM2.5 exposure, so we report on exceedances of the WHO 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration guideline (25 µg/m3).
We report on data from nine sites from 2005–16 and report only on sea salt for natural PM because other sources of natural PM, such as dust and sulphate, can be generated by humans as well. We were not able to separate the natural from human-generated contributions. Analysis of particle size, composition, and sources in New Zealand shows that sea salt made the largest contribution to natural PM.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98425
Data type Table
Row count 13484
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Ground-level ozone concentrations, Auckland, 2001–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1390
8
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Ground-level (tropospheric) ozone (O3) exists at a natural background level but is also produced when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds from vehicle emissions, petrol fumes, industrial processes solvents, and other human-made sources react in the presence of sunlight. It is the primary component of photochemical smog.
Ozone also occurs naturally in the stratosphere, where it protects us from ultraviolet radiation – this ozone occasionally can mix downwards to ground level.
Because sunlight and warmth are required for the chemical reactions that form ground-level ozone, peak concentrations often occur in summer when daylight hours are longer and temperatures are higher. Since the precursors for ozone can travel downwind from their sources before they react with sunlight, ozone concentrations can be high many kilometres from the precursor emissions’ sources.
Exposure to high concentrations of ozone can cause respiratory health problems and is linked to cardiovascular health problems and mortality. It can also damage vegetation.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98423
Data type Table
Row count 535064
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Sulphur dioxide concentrations, 2008–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1335
25
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a highly reactive gas formed when fuels containing sulphur, such as coal or petrochemical products (including high-sulphur ship fuel), are burned. It is also produced from industrial processes such as superphosphate fertiliser production and smelting sulphur-containing metal ores. Geothermal and volcanic gases are the main natural sources of sulphur dioxide.
When inhaled, sulphur dioxide is associated with respiratory problems such as bronchitis. It can aggravate the symptoms of asthma and chronic lung disease and cause irritation to eyes. On days with higher sulphur dioxide levels, hospital admissions for cardiac disease and mortality increase. In ecosystems, it can injure vegetation, acidify water and soil, and affect biodiversity.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98421
Data type Table
Row count 554866
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM10 concentrations, 2006–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1297
22
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 particles have a diameter less than 10 micrometres. Coarse particles (2.5–10 micrometres) can be inhaled – they generally deposit in the upper airways; fine particles (smaller than 2.5 micrometres) can deposit deep in the lungs where air-gas exchange occurs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung issues have a higher risk of health problems from exposure to PM10. These problems include decreased lung function, heart attack, and mortality.
Human-generated PM10 sources include burning wood and coal for home heating, and traffic emissions (eg combustion, tyre and brake wear, and pavement breakdown). Natural sources include sea salt, dust, pollen, and mould spores.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98414
Data type Table
Row count 209964
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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