Groundwater quality, 1964–2014

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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594
13
Added
24 Apr 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 24 Apr 2017.

Groundwater quality indicators include E.coli, nitrate-nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, and dissolved reactive phosphorus. Also included is data on pesticides, iron, manganese, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids. Information on sampling protocol, equipment, and method is provided.

Nitrogen occurs naturally in groundwater, but usually at very low concentrations. Agricultural and urban land use can add more nitrate-nitrogen to groundwater. If used for drinking water, high levels of nitrogen in groundwater can affect human health and the quality of surrounding rivers and lakes. Ammoniacal nitrogen is undesirable if groundwater is used for drinking, and elevated levels of nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen can be toxic to fish and other animals. Surplus phosphorus drains (leaches) into groundwater as dissolved reactive phosphorus. It can also be present naturally from interactions between groundwater and rocks. Too much phosphorus can lead to excessive plant and algae growth where groundwater flows into surface water. E.coli in fresh water can indicate the presence of pathogens (disease-causing organisms) from animal or human faeces. The pathogens can cause illness for anyone who ingests them.

The file contains the raw data for all groundwater quality indicators. This dataset was used to calculate the percent exceedances of the drinking water standards for E.coli and nitrate-nitrogen over the period 2012–14.

Table ID 53602
Data type Table
Row count 111035
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Area of seabed trawled by depth class (1990–2011)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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583
1
Added
19 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 19 Oct 2016.

Seabed trawling and dredging (where fishing gear is towed near or along the ocean floor) can physically damage seabed (benthic) habitats and species. These fishing methods can also stir up sediment from the seabed, creating sediment plumes that can smother sensitive species. Recovery times for affected habitats and species depend on their sensitivity and the area affected by trawling or dredging. Bottom trawling is carried out on or near the seabed in both shallow and deep waters. Dredging is carried out on the seabed in shallow waters and targets marine creatures such as scallops. This measure focuses on deepwater areas (waters deeper than 200m).

Table ID 53486
Data type Table
Row count 4
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Total suspended particulate matter concentrations at Penrose, Auckland, 1965–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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573
1
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) consists of solid and liquid airborne particles that are smaller than 100 micrometres in diameter. Although, by weight, it is dominated by the larger particles it does also include the PM10 and PM2.5 sub-fractions that are responsible for most health effects, such as respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. TSP can be emitted from earthworks, construction and roadworks, and the combustion of fuels such as wood and coal (eg, from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles).
Natural TSP sources include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash.
TSP consists of airborne particles up to 100 micrometres (μm) in diameter (PM100). TSP is small enough to be inhaled; however, larger particles (10–100μm) are filtered out in the nasal cavity and are often relatively harmless.
TSP can be emitted from earthworks, construction, and roadworks, and from combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg, home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of TSP include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. TSP also forms from reactions in the atmosphere between gases or between gases and other particles.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98422
Data type Table
Row count 2658
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Marine economy: building consents (2007–2013)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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566
3
Added
19 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 19 Oct 2016.

The marine economy shows the contribution of marine-based economic activities to the New Zealand economy. Measuring the marine economy shows how New Zealand’s marine environment is used to generate economic activity and how this changes over time. However, these activities can also be a source of pressure on New Zealand’s marine environment.
Building consent data on wharves and wharf sheds is used to provide estimates for activity within the marine construction category. Building consents are an estimate, at the time of applying for the consent, of the value of the work to be put in place. For more information, see Statistics New Zealand (2016).

Table ID 53490
Data type Table
Row count 28
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Benzene concentrations in Hamilton, 2003–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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565
1
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Benzene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is common in the air. Motor vehicles are benzene’s primary emission source (Guerreiro, Foltescu, & de Leeuw, 2014; Weisel, 2010) although burning wood or coal for home heating, volcanoes, and forest fires also emit benzene.
Benzene is a human carcinogen (World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe Copenhagen, 2000) that has been shown to cause leukaemia (Smith, 2010), and is associated with developmental, immune, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory problems (Bahadar, Mostafalou, & Abdollahi, 2014). Acute exposure can affect the liver and respiration (Bahadar et al, 2014).
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98412
Data type Table
Row count 71
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Mean chlorophyll-a concentrations and anomalies (1997–2016)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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491
13
Added
25 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 25 Oct 2016.

Measured oceanic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations as an indicator of marine primary productivity. Phytoplankton are primary producers of biomass (mass of living organisms) and form the main basis of marine food chains. They use the chl-a pigment to capture the sun’s energy through the process of photosynthesis. Phytoplankton growth is affected by the availability of nutrients and light, which in turn are affected by the structure of the surface water column. The surface water column structure is affected by oceanographic and climate processes; large-scale changes to climate and oceanographic conditions can lead to changes in phytoplankton growth and chl-a concentrations.

Table ID 53509
Data type Table
Row count 2220
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Ocean storms (1979–2015)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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380
9
Added
14 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2016.

The ocean storm index estimates the number of days in a year when wind speeds exceed gale and storm force on the Beaufort Scale. In a gale, sea conditions are rough and waves can be over six metres high. In a storm, waves can be over 10 metres high. To put this into context, on land a near gale would make walking difficult, and a storm would cause some damage to roofs, chimneys, and trees. Climate change could lead to changes in the frequency and intensity of storms. More frequent and intense storms will likely be a stressor for habitats and species.
The ocean storm index estimates the number of days that wind speeds exceed gale and storm force on the Beaufort Scale. The Beaufort Scale is a widely used international classification that rates sea conditions from 0 (calm) to 12 (hurricane). We report on estimated wind speeds broken down to:
- gales – measure 8 on the scale, have rough sea conditions with wind speeds of approximately 62–74 km per hour and wave heights of 5.5 metres
- storms – measure 10 on the scale, have wind speeds of approximately 89–102 km per hour and wave heights of 9–11.5 metres (McDonald & Parsons, 2016)

Table ID 53465
Data type Table
Row count 74
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Urban water quality - state - 2013–2015

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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81
4
Added
24 Apr 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 24 Apr 2017.

Urban water quality indicators include heavy metals, nutrients, and E.coli. The concentrations of these indicators are compared to the proportion of urban land cover in catchments.

Heavy metals have the ability to accumulate in sediments, shellfish, and other aquatic organisms. Metals can reach toxic levels in organisms making them unsafe to consume and can be toxic to aquatic life. Nutrients can cause excessive algal growth and E.coli has the ability to make people sick while they are swimming if concentrations are high enough. Rivers with poor water quality are rarely suitable for recreation and provide poor habitats for aquatic species.

File contains data analysis of medians and percentiles by site for water quality indicators, and includes the proportion of urban land cover in catchments in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch over the period 2013–2015.

Table ID 53597
Data type Table
Row count 379
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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