El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (1909–2013)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

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6137
88
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is an important predictor of how tropical oceans and climate might influence New Zealand’s climate. Being able to predict the timing and intensity of an El Niño or La Niña climate phase is important in predicting and preparing for extreme climatic conditions, such as strong winds, heavy rain, or drought. Such extreme conditions can impact on our environment, industries, and recreational activities. ENSO is commonly measured using the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).
In New Zealand, an El Niño phase can cause colder winters. In summer it can result in more rain in the west and drought in the east. A La Niña phase can cause warmer temperatures, more rain in the north-east, and less rain in the south and south-west.
This dataset relates to the "El Niño Southern Oscillation" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52589
Data type Table
Row count 1729
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

El Niño Southern Oscillation, 1876 - 2019

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

742
7
Added
14 Oct 2020

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2020.

DATA SOURCE: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)
[Technical report available at www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/environmental-reporti...]

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency

Dataset used to develop the "El Niño Southern Oscillation" indicator [available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/el-nino-southern-osci...]

This indicator measures the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the movement of warm equatorial water across the Pacific Ocean and the atmospheric response, using the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). The SOI measures changes in atmospheric pressures across the Pacific.

We report the monthly average and 6-month rolling average SOI from 1876 to 2019, as well as the annual average SOI for this same period alongside New Zealand’s de-trended temperature from 1909 to 2019.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 105060
Data type Table
Row count 1740
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Estimated global production of major ozone-depleting substances (1986–2013)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

4889
13
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

Ozone in the stratosphere is destroyed in a catalytic reaction with a range of chemical species (mainly CFCs) that are emitted through human activities. The emission of these ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) is closely related to the amount of the chemicals that are produced. The ozone layer absorbs most of the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Monitoring global ODS production helps us track how much pressure these substances put on the atmosphere.
In accordance with article 7 of the Montreal Protocol – Parties are required to report data on the production, import and export of specified ozone depleting substances covered in the original protocol and the amendments ratified by that Party. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Ozone Secretariat data centre is the source of the information reported.
This dataset relates to the "global emissions of ozone-depleting substances" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52566
Data type Table
Row count 4428
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Extreme wind, 1972 - 2019, state

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1488
10
Added
14 Oct 2020

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2020.

DATA SOURCE: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)
[Technical report available at www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/environmental-reporti...]

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency

Dataset used to develop the "Extreme wind indicator [available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/extreme-wind]

This indicator measures the strength of extreme wind and how often extreme wind events (measured as a gust that is extreme for that location) happen at 30 sites across New Zealand from 1972 to 2019, although not all sites start at 1972. We report windiness using the annual average of the daily maximum wind gust. We report wind strength using the annual maximum wind gust. We use the number of days per year with a maximum wind gust in the 99th percentile to report how often extreme wind events occur for a location (on average, the 99th percentile daily maximum wind gust will be exceeded on 3.6 days per year).

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 105048
Data type Table
Row count 51840
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Extreme wind, 1972 - 2019, trend

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1437
4
Added
14 Oct 2020

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2020.

DATA SOURCE: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)
[Technical report available at www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/environmental-reporti...]

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency

Dataset used to develop the "Extreme wind indicator [available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/extreme-wind]

This indicator measures the strength of extreme wind and how often extreme wind events (measured as a gust that is extreme for that location) happen at 30 sites across New Zealand from 1972 to 2019, although not all sites start at 1972. We report windiness using the annual average of the daily maximum wind gust. We report wind strength using the annual maximum wind gust. We use the number of days per year with a maximum wind gust in the 99th percentile to report how often extreme wind events occur for a location (on average, the 99th percentile daily maximum wind gust will be exceeded on 3.6 days per year). We also present trends for all three of these measures.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 105049
Data type Table
Row count 84
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Extreme wind, 1972–2016

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

5755
77
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Extreme wind annual statistics for 30 regionally representative sites. The number of days with a maximum gust in the 99th percentile provides information on the frequency of extreme wind events. Percentiles are obtained from all available daily maximum wind gust data. On average, the 99th percentile daily maximum wind gust will be exceeded on approximately 3.6 days per year. Therefore, annual counts higher than this indicate more days than usual with very strong wind gusts recorded; annual counts lower than 3.6 indicate fewer strong wind gust days than usual. By using a percentile threshold we can identify events that are extreme for a particular location. Some places are naturally subject to stronger winds than others, so vegetation can become ‘wind-hardened’ and may have a higher tolerance to high wind gusts (eg a 100 km/hr wind gust may be damaging at one location, but not at another). Using a relative threshold accounts for these differences and better captures extreme wind gust occurrences. The highest maximum gust per year and the average annual highest maximum wind gust both provide information on the magnitude of extreme wind events.
Steady wind can be an important resource, but strong gusts can damage property, topple trees, and disrupt transportation, communications, and electricity. Extreme wind events can occur with frontal weather systems, around strong convective storms such as thunderstorms, and with ex-tropical cyclones. Projections indicate climate change may alter the occurrence of extreme wind events, with the strength of extreme winds expected to increase over the southern half of the North Island and the South Island, especially east of the Southern Alps, and decrease from Northland to Bay of Plenty. Monitoring can help us gauge the potential of, and prepare for, such events.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89425
Data type Table
Row count 1327
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Forest carbon stocks trends, 1990–2015

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

6176
14
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

New Zealand’s indigenous and exotic forests absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and store the carbon as biomass and in the soil. On average, more than twice as much carbon per hectare is stored in New Zealand’s mature indigenous forests than in exotic forests planted for wood production. Regenerating indigenous forests are also an important store of carbon, adding carbon every year as they grow. Total carbon stored in exotic forests will fluctuate over decades as the forests grow from seedlings to mature trees, are harvested, and replanted. Because CO2 is the major driver of climate change, forests provide important mitigation services and help New Zealand meet its climate change commitments.
The trend was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89410
Data type Table
Row count 2
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Forest carbon stocks, 1990–2015

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

5387
30
Added
17 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 17 Oct 2017.

Forest carbon stocks and areas, including stock changes, areas, and deforestation.
New Zealand’s indigenous and exotic forests absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and store the carbon as biomass and in the soil. On average, more than twice as much carbon per hectare is stored in New Zealand’s mature indigenous forests than in exotic forests planted for wood production. Regenerating indigenous forests are also an important store of carbon, adding carbon every year as they grow. Total carbon stored in exotic forests will fluctuate over decades as the forests grow from seedlings to mature trees, are harvested, and replanted. Because CO2 is the major driver of climate change, forests provide important mitigation services and help New Zealand meet its climate change commitments.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89475
Data type Table
Row count 1066
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Frost and warm days trend assessment, 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

5131
15
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

The number of frost and warm days changes from year to year in response to climate variation, such as the warming pattern induced by El Niño. Climate models project we may experience fewer cold and more warm extremes in the future. Changes in the number of frost and warm days can affect agriculture, recreation, and our behaviour, for example, what we do to keep safe on icy roads or whether to use air conditioning to keep cool.
A frost day is when the minimum temperature recorded is below 0 degrees Celsius. It refers to a temperature measured in an instrument screen 1.2m above the ground rather than a ‘ground frost’. We define a warm day as having a maximum recorded temperature above 25 degrees Celsius. The threshold of 25 degrees Celsius is chosen to represent days where action might be taken to keep cool (eg turn air conditioning on).
This dataset gives the trend in frost and warm days for New Zealand, the North and South Islands, and for all 30 sites.
For frost days we have used calendar years. For warm days we have used growing season (July 1 – June 30 of the following year).
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our Environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89388
Data type Table
Row count 60
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Frost and warm days, 1972–2016

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

5306
32
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

The number of frost and warm days changes from year to year in response to climate variation, such as the warming pattern induced by El Niño. Climate models project we may experience fewer cold and more warm extremes in the future. Changes in the number of frost and warm days can affect agriculture, recreation, and our behaviour, for example, what we do to keep safe on icy roads or whether to use air conditioning to keep cool.
A frost day is when the minimum temperature recorded is below 0 degrees Celsius. It refers to a temperature measured in an instrument screen 1.2 m above the ground rather than a ‘ground frost’. We define a warm day as having a maximum recorded temperature above 25 degrees Celsius. The threshold of 25 degrees Celsius is chosen to represent days where action might be taken to keep cool (eg turn air conditioning on).
This dataset gives the number of frost and warm days per month and calendar year for New Zealand, the North and South Islands, and all 30 sites.
For frost days we have used calendar years. For warm days we have used growing season (July 1 – June 30 of the following year).
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89387
Data type Table
Row count 32667
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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