Annual glacier ice volumes trend, 1977–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1375
9
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

A glacier is a body of slow-moving ice, at least 1 hectare in area that has persisted for two decades or longer. New Zealand has 3,144 glaciers. Most are located along the Southern Alps on the South Island, although Mount Ruapehu on the North Island supports 18 glaciers. New Zealand’s large glaciers are noteworthy for their large debris cover. The exceptions, Franz Joseph and Fox glaciers, are rare examples of glaciers that terminate in a rainforest.
Glacier volume is strongly influenced by climate factors, such as temperature and precipitation, which scientists expect to be affected by the warming climate. Glacial ice is an important water resource. Changes to ice storage and melting can affect ecological and hydropower resources downstream, as well as important cultural values and tourism.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89397
Data type Table
Row count 1
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, 1871–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1352
30
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) is a long-term oscillation of sea-surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean that can last from 20 to 30 years. Its positive and negative phases affect the strength and frequency of El Niño and La Niña. In New Zealand, the positive phase is linked to stronger west to southwest winds and more rain in the west. This trend is reversed during the negative phase.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89382
Data type Table
Row count 730
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in ozone concentrations, 1978–2017

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1373
2
Added
14 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2017.

NIWA supplied ozone data in two forms, with different starting dates:
- measurements made using a Dobson spectrophotometer (number 72), from 1987
- data assimilated from satellite measurements recalibrated against the global Dobson network, from 1978.
NIWA takes measurements using the Dobson spectrophotometer 72 under clear-sky, direct sunlight conditions at Lauder in Otago. There are gaps in the time series due to days with cloud, rain, or too much wind. However, over the whole period, each individual calendar day of the year was measured. This allows us to calculate statistics based on the day of the year.
The trend was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89465
Data type Table
Row count 3
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Oceanic sea surface temperature, 1993–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1355
19
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

We used NIWA’s sea-surface temperature archive, which is derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data it receives from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The archive provides high spatial (approximately 1km) and high temporal (approximately six-hourly in cloud-free locations) resolution estimates of sea-surface temperatures over the New Zealand region, dating from January 1993. Uddstrom & Oien (1999) and Uddstrom (2003) describe the methods used to derive and validate the data.
Our data extends from about 30°S to 55°S, and from 160°E to 170°W and is grouped into five areas: the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), the Chatham Rise, northern subtropical waters, subantarctic waters, and the Tasman Sea.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89406
Data type Table
Row count 960
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED), 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1359
10
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Interpolated PED values at 30 regionally representative sites.
Soil moisture is vital for plant growth. When plants cannot access the water they need, growth is reduced, affecting crops and food for livestock, and native biodiversity. Over a sustained period, a drought can have significant social and economic costs, particularly for rural communities.
Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED) can be thought of as a drought index. It is the difference between how much water could potentially be lost from the soil through evapotranspiration and how much is actually available. When PED is high, plants do not have the full amount of water available they need for growth. PED is measured in growing seasons (the 12 months from 1 July to 30 June of the following year. Data covers each of the growing seasons from 1 July 1972, with the last growing season in the series ending on 30 June 2016. More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89437
Data type Table
Row count 1320
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Southern Annular Mode trend assessment, 1860–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1360
6
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

A consistent band of westerly wind flows across the Southern Hemisphere and circles the South Pole. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) describes how this band moves, either north towards the equator (negative phase) or south towards Antarctica (positive phase). A negative phase typically causes increased westerlies, unsettled weather, and storms in New Zealand. A phase can last several weeks, but changes can be rapid and unpredictable.
The SAM is one of three climate oscillations that affect our weather. The resulting changes in air pressure, sea temperature, and wind direction can last for weeks to decades, depending on the oscillation.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89385
Data type Table
Row count 7
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Extreme wind, 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1310
31
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Extreme wind annual statistics for 30 regionally representative sites. The number of days with a maximum gust in the 99th percentile provides information on the frequency of extreme wind events. Percentiles are obtained from all available daily maximum wind gust data. On average, the 99th percentile daily maximum wind gust will be exceeded on approximately 3.6 days per year. Therefore, annual counts higher than this indicate more days than usual with very strong wind gusts recorded; annual counts lower than 3.6 indicate fewer strong wind gust days than usual. By using a percentile threshold we can identify events that are extreme for a particular location. Some places are naturally subject to stronger winds than others, so vegetation can become ‘wind-hardened’ and may have a higher tolerance to high wind gusts (eg a 100 km/hr wind gust may be damaging at one location, but not at another). Using a relative threshold accounts for these differences and better captures extreme wind gust occurrences. The highest maximum gust per year and the average annual highest maximum wind gust both provide information on the magnitude of extreme wind events.
Steady wind can be an important resource, but strong gusts can damage property, topple trees, and disrupt transportation, communications, and electricity. Extreme wind events can occur with frontal weather systems, around strong convective storms such as thunderstorms, and with ex-tropical cyclones. Projections indicate climate change may alter the occurrence of extreme wind events, with the strength of extreme winds expected to increase over the southern half of the North Island and the South Island, especially east of the Southern Alps, and decrease from Northland to Bay of Plenty. Monitoring can help us gauge the potential of, and prepare for, such events.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89425
Data type Table
Row count 1327
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Greenhouse gas concentrations at Baring Head, 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1316
7
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

We report on GHG concentrations in ‘clean air’ measured at Baring Head, near Wellington. These measurements give us a good idea of global concentrations and help us infer long-term impacts on ocean acidity, temperature, sea level and glaciers.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89412
Data type Table
Row count 1103
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual glacier ice volumes, 1977–2016

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1303
17
Added
16 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2017.

A glacier is a body of slow-moving ice, at least 1 hectare in area that has persisted for two decades or longer. New Zealand has 3,144 glaciers. Most are located along the Southern Alps on the South Island, although Mount Ruapehu on the North Island supports 18 glaciers. New Zealand’s large glaciers are noteworthy for their large debris cover. The exceptions, Franz Joseph and Fox glaciers, are rare examples of glaciers that terminate in a rainforest.
Glacier volume is strongly influenced by climate factors, such as temperature and precipitation, which scientists expect to be affected by the warming climate. Glacial ice is an important water resource. Changes to ice storage and melting can affect ecological and hydropower resources downstream, as well as important cultural values and tourism.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89472
Data type Table
Row count 40
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Average daily ozone concentrations, 1979–2016

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1304
11
Added
14 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2017.

NIWA supplied ozone data in two forms, with different starting dates:
- measurements made using a Dobson spectrophotometer (number 72), from 1987
- data assimilated from satellite measurements recalibrated against the global Dobson network, from 1978.
NIWA takes measurements using the Dobson spectrophotometer 72 under clear-sky, direct sunlight conditions at Lauder in Otago. There are gaps in the time series due to days with cloud, rain, or too much wind. However, over the whole period, each individual calendar day of the year was measured. This allows us to calculate statistics based on the day of the year.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89464
Data type Table
Row count 1098
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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