PM10 composed of sea salt and soil

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3447
16
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

We measure the annual concentrations and proportions of natural and anthropogenic particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10). PM10 in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources.

PM10 occurs naturally, for example, as sea salt, dust (airborne soil), or pollen. Airborne soil particles, although natural, are also produced by human-made processes such as construction and industrial activities. Natural particulates can make up a large portion of PM10 in some areas.

Research on the health effects of natural particulate matter is inconclusive, and the World Health Organization (WHO) considers all particulate matter of a certain size to be of equal toxicity. Natural particulates are generally in the PM2.5 to PM10 size range, which typically has less harmful health effects than smaller particles.

This dataset relates to the "Natural particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10)" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52441
Data type Table
Row count 48
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Total suspended particulates concentration in Auckland, 1965–2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3421
20
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Total suspended particulates (TSP) consist of all solid particles and liquid droplets up to 100 micrometres (μm) in diameter (ie when compared with PM10 and PM2.5, TSP is the equivalent of PM100).

TSP can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry) and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of TSP include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. TSP also forms from reactions between gases or between gases and other particles.

The smaller components of TSP (PM10 and PM2.5) are associated with health effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer. Reporting on changes in TSP concentrations helps us understand long-term changes in particulate matter pollution.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Total suspended particulate concentration in Auckland" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52431
Data type Table
Row count 588
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM10 concentrations, 2006–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3163
42
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 particles have a diameter less than 10 micrometres. Coarse particles (2.5–10 micrometres) can be inhaled – they generally deposit in the upper airways; fine particles (smaller than 2.5 micrometres) can deposit deep in the lungs where air-gas exchange occurs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung issues have a higher risk of health problems from exposure to PM10. These problems include decreased lung function, heart attack, and mortality.
Human-generated PM10 sources include burning wood and coal for home heating, and traffic emissions (eg combustion, tyre and brake wear, and pavement breakdown). Natural sources include sea salt, dust, pollen, and mould spores.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98414
Data type Table
Row count 209964
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Relative contribution of key sources

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3427
16
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Burning wood and coal for home heating, road motor vehicle use, industrial activities, and household outdoor burning are the key human-made sources of air pollutants in New Zealand. These pollutants have a range of health effects.
Measuring the relative contribution of each source helps us understand their pressures on our air quality. It also provides context for changes in emissions from individual sources. For example, from 2006 to 2013, PM10 emissions from road motor vehicles decreased 25 percent. However, this source contributed only 9 percent of the total national PM10 emissions from the four key sources. Therefore, this decrease in PM10 emissions from road motor vehicles likely had only a minor effect on total PM10 emissions.

Daily winter emissions and annual average emissions are presented as there is strong seasonality in emissions. Daily winter contributions were also assessed because this is the timeframe used by WHO and in national standards and winter months is when concentrations in excess of the standards most frequently occur.

This dataset relates to the "Relative contribution of key human-made emission sources" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Further information can be found in Environet and Golders Associates (2015). Home heating emission inventory and other sources evaluation. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/a5FAw6 on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice.

Table ID 52434
Data type Table
Row count 40
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

National PM10 exceedances 2006–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3402
16
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of PM10 include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. Nationally, burning wood or coal for home heating is the main human-made source of PM10.

PM10 is of particular concern because it is found in high concentrations in some areas and can damage health. It is associated with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer.

Column headings:
- No_airsheds = number of airsheds

This dataset relates to the "PM10 daily concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52459
Data type Table
Row count 40
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Nitrogen dioxide concentration at state highway sites 2007–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3410
12
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas. It can be emitted directly into the air but is most often formed when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals in the air. Nationally, road motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx, the collective term for NO2 and NO). NO2 may cause respiratory infections and reduced lung development and functioning.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) (collectively known as nitrogen oxides, NOx) are emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels and from natural sources such as volcanoes. The four main human-made sources of key pollutants in New Zealand are burning wood or coal for home heating, road motor vehicle use, industry, and household outdoor burning.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Nitrogen dioxide concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52455
Data type Table
Row count 224
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM2.5 exceedances 2008–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3597
18
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

PM2.5 are particles 2.5 micrometres or less in diameter. PM2.5 is emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (eg from vehicles). Natural sources have less influence on PM2.5 concentrations than PM10 concentrations. This means PM2.5 comes mainly from human activities. Nationally, burning wood or coal for home heating is the main source of PM2.5.

PM2.5 is a component of PM10 and is associated with similar health effects, ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer. However, the smaller PM2.5 particles are more closely associated with severe health problems.

Column headings:
- No_exceed - Number of exceedances
- Disp_graph - Displayed on graph (1= yes, 0 = no)

This dataset relates to the "PM2.5 concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52439
Data type Table
Row count 60
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lead concentrations 2005–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3421
8
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Lead is a heavy metal. Airborne sources include some industrial discharges, such as at metal smelters and the removal of lead-based paint from buildings without proper safety precautions. Lead can harm the nervous system and hearing, and impair mental development. Before 1996, when petrol became lead free, some New Zealand sites experienced elevated lead concentrations.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Lead concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52453
Data type Table
Row count 9
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Health impacts of PM10, 2006 & 2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3639
11
Added
17 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 17 Oct 2018.

PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometres in diameter) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 can be inhaled and the largest particles in this size fraction are deposited in the upper airways, while the smaller ones can deposit deep in the lungs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung problems have a higher risk of health effects from PM10 exposure. Health effects include decreased lung function or heart attack, and mortality.
We report on the modelled number of premature deaths for adults (30+ years), hospitalisations, and restricted activity days for people of all ages for years 2006 and 2016 only. The model only includes impacts that result from exposure to PM10 that comes from human activities.
We focus on PM10 from human activities because these sources can be managed, unlike PM from natural sources such as sea salt.
• Premature deaths are those, often preventable, occurring before a person reaches the age they could be expected to live to.
• Hospitalisations relate to those for respiratory and cardiac illnesses (not including cases leading to premature death).
• Restricted activity days occur when symptoms are sufficient to limit usual activities such as work or study. These days aren’t shared evenly across the population – people with asthma or other respiratory conditions would likely have more restricted activity days.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98462
Data type Table
Row count 12
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Nitrogen dioxide concentrations: New Zealand Transport Agency data, 2010–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3329
27
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas that is harmful to human health, ecosystems, and plants (US EPA, 2008). It can be emitted directly into the air but is often formed as a secondary pollutant when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) and ozone, which have their own health impacts. In New Zealand, motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the collective term for NO2 and NO. Because nitrogen dioxide concentrations are closely associated with vehicle emissions, it can be used as a proxy for other motor-vehicle pollutants such as benzene, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.
Human exposure to high nitrogen dioxide concentrations causes inflammation of the airways and respiratory problems, particularly asthma. Nitrogen dioxide causes leaf injury in plants exposed to high levels. It also contributes to forming secondary particulate matter and ozone, which have their own health impacts.
We report on observed nitrogen dioxide concentrations from the New Zealand Transport Agency’s (NZTA) monitoring network. NZTA has comprehensive coverage across New Zealand.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98426
Data type Table
Row count 828
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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