Seasonal rainfall, winter, 1981–2010

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1042
4
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Rain is vital for life – it supplies the water we need to drink and to grow our food, keeps our ecosystems healthy, and supplies our electricity. New Zealand’s mountainous terrain and location in the roaring forties mean rainfall varies across the country. Changes in rainfall amount or timing can significantly affect agriculture, energy, recreation, and the environment. For example, an increase or decrease of rainfall in spring can have marked effects on crops or fish populations.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Layer ID 89415
Data type Grid
Resolution 500.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning strike density, 2000–14

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1019
19
Added
10 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 10 Feb 2016.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity, from thunderstorms, that equalises areas of positive and negative charge, for example, between a storm cloud and the ground. Thunderstorms form as a result of rapidly rising air with a high moisture content (humidity). On average, 1 in 10 lightning discharges strikes the ground (or sea) (Metservice, 2015). Lightning (and therefore thunderstorms) are also often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts, and in extreme cases tornadoes.

By international standards, lightning does not occur frequently around New Zealand. However, thunderstorms, and thus lightning, can cause injury and damage (Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, 2010), and may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change (Mullen et. al., 2011).

This data shows the average annual number of lightning strikes per 25km square.

This dataset relates to the "Lightning" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: grid/point

Unit: strikes/25km2/year

Further information can be found in:

MetService (nd). Lightning observation services. Accessed 3 June 2015 from www.metservice.com.

Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (2010). Thunderstorms. Working from the same page: Consistent messages for CDEM (p3). Available from www.civildefence.govt.nz.

Mullan, B, Carey-Smith, T, Griffiths, G, & Sood, A (2011). Scenarios of storminess and regional wind extremes under climate change. NIWA Client Report: WLG2010-31 (pvii). Available from www.niwa.co.nz.

Layer ID 52851
Data type Grid
Resolution 5000.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Seasonal rainfall, autumn, 1981–2010

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1035
3
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Rain is vital for life – it supplies the water we need to drink and to grow our food, keeps our ecosystems healthy, and supplies our electricity. New Zealand’s mountainous terrain and location in the roaring forties mean rainfall varies across the country. Changes in rainfall amount or timing can significantly affect agriculture, energy, recreation, and the environment. For example, an increase or decrease of rainfall in spring can have marked effects on crops or fish populations.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Layer ID 89416
Data type Grid
Resolution 500.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual rainfall Units: percentage of normal, 1978

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1029
2
Added
11 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Feb 2016.

Annual rainfall is the total accumulated rain over one year. Rain is vital for life, including plant growth, drinking water, river ecosystem health, and sanitation. Floods and droughts affect our environment, economy, and recreational opportunities.

This layer shows the annual rainfall as a percentage of normal across New Zealand for 1978 as part of the data series for years 1972 to 2013. Annual rainfall is the total accumulated rain over one year. It is estimated from the daily rainfall estimates of the Virtual Climate Station Network (NIWA). 'Normal' is defined as the average annual rainfall from 1972–2013.

This dataset relates to the "Annual average rainfall" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: raster catalogue
Unit: percent

Layer ID 52949
Data type Grid
Resolution 5110.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Standardised soil moisture deficit 2013 2014

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1017
14
Added
11 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Feb 2016.

Soil moisture is important for plant growth. A lack of moisture content over a growing season is a good indicator of drought, which can have social, environmental, and economic impacts. Increasing temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns are expected to increase the frequency and intensity of drought in many regions. Growing season soil moisture deficits are estimated by the potential evapotranspiration deficit, the difference between rainfall and evapotranspiration.

This layer shows the standardised annual soil moisture (potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED)) across New Zealand for 2013 as part of the data series for years 1972 to 2013.

Evapotranspiration is the loss of water by evaporation and plant transpiration. PED is the difference between estimated evapotranspiration and rainfall.

We produced maps of the standardised annual PED (the departure from the 1981–2010 average, divided by the 1981–2010 standard deviation) were produced for every growing season (calculated as July–June years) from 1972 to 2013.

Care should be taken when comparing maps from year to year – days may be missing from the PED GIS data, and data may have been interpolated to complete the dataset. The interpolation accuracy is lowest in areas of high elevation, where there are fewer climate stations and complex terrain affects accuracy. Climate stations may also open and close, affecting the accuracy of the data provided.

This dataset relates to the "Soil moisture and drought" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Layer ID 53095
Data type Grid
Resolution 5096.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Standardised soil moisture deficit 1985-1986

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1030
0
Added
11 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Feb 2016.

Soil moisture is important for plant growth. A lack of moisture content over a growing season is a good indicator of drought, which can have social, environmental, and economic impacts. Increasing temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns are expected to increase the frequency and intensity of drought in many regions. Growing season soil moisture deficits are estimated by the potential evapotranspiration deficit, the difference between rainfall and evapotranspiration.

This layer shows the standardised annual soil moisture (potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED)) across New Zealand for 1985 as part of the data series for years 1972 to 2013.

Evapotranspiration is the loss of water by evaporation and plant transpiration. PED is the difference between estimated evapotranspiration and rainfall.

We produced maps of the standardised annual PED (the departure from the 1981–2010 average, divided by the 1981–2010 standard deviation) were produced for every growing season (calculated as July–June years) from 1972 to 2013.

Care should be taken when comparing maps from year to year – days may be missing from the PED GIS data, and data may have been interpolated to complete the dataset. The interpolation accuracy is lowest in areas of high elevation, where there are fewer climate stations and complex terrain affects accuracy. Climate stations may also open and close, affecting the accuracy of the data provided.

This dataset relates to the "Soil moisture and drought" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Layer ID 53068
Data type Grid
Resolution 5096.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Growing season soil moisture deficit, 1988-1989

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1029
0
Added
10 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 10 Feb 2016.

Soil moisture is important for plant growth. A lack of moisture content over a growing season is a good indicator of drought, which can have social, environmental, and economic impacts. Increasing temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns are expected to increase the frequency and intensity of drought in many regions. Growing season soil moisture deficits are estimated by the potential evapotranspiration deficit, the difference between rainfall and evapotranspiration.

This dataset is one of a series that show annual average soil moisture (potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED)) across New Zealand for years 1972 to 2014.

Evapotranspiration is the loss of water by evaporation and plant transpiration. PED is the difference between estimated evapotranspiration and rainfall.

We produced maps of the annual PED total (in millimetres) for every growing season (calculated as July–June years) from 1972 to 2013. Care should be taken when comparing maps from year to year – days may be missing from the PED GIS data, and data may have been interpolated to complete the dataset. The interpolation accuracy is lowest in areas of high elevation, where there are fewer climate stations and complex terrain affects accuracy. Climate stations may also open and close, affecting the accuracy of the data provided.

This dataset relates to the "Soil moisture and drought" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: raster catalogue
Unit: mm/yr

Layer ID 52868
Data type Grid
Resolution 5096.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual rainfall Units: percentage of normal, 1997

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1023
3
Added
11 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Feb 2016.

Annual rainfall is the total accumulated rain over one year. Rain is vital for life, including plant growth, drinking water, river ecosystem health, and sanitation. Floods and droughts affect our environment, economy, and recreational opportunities.

This layer shows the annual rainfall as a percentage of normal across New Zealand for 1997 as part of the data series for years 1972 to 2013. Annual rainfall is the total accumulated rain over one year. It is estimated from the daily rainfall estimates of the Virtual Climate Station Network (NIWA). 'Normal' is defined as the average annual rainfall from 1972–2013.

This dataset relates to the "Annual average rainfall" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: raster catalogue
Unit: percent

Layer ID 52986
Data type Grid
Resolution 5110.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Growing season soil moisture deficit, 1986-1987

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1024
0
Added
10 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 10 Feb 2016.

Soil moisture is important for plant growth. A lack of moisture content over a growing season is a good indicator of drought, which can have social, environmental, and economic impacts. Increasing temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns are expected to increase the frequency and intensity of drought in many regions. Growing season soil moisture deficits are estimated by the potential evapotranspiration deficit, the difference between rainfall and evapotranspiration.

This dataset is one of a series that show annual average soil moisture (potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED)) across New Zealand for years 1972 to 2014.

Evapotranspiration is the loss of water by evaporation and plant transpiration. PED is the difference between estimated evapotranspiration and rainfall.

We produced maps of the annual PED total (in millimetres) for every growing season (calculated as July–June years) from 1972 to 2013. Care should be taken when comparing maps from year to year – days may be missing from the PED GIS data, and data may have been interpolated to complete the dataset. The interpolation accuracy is lowest in areas of high elevation, where there are fewer climate stations and complex terrain affects accuracy. Climate stations may also open and close, affecting the accuracy of the data provided.

This dataset relates to the "Soil moisture and drought" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: raster catalogue

Unit: mm/yr

Layer ID 52866
Data type Grid
Resolution 5096.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Average annual PED, 2015/16

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

1023
1
Added
18 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 18 Oct 2017.

Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED) can be thought of as a drought index. It is the difference between how much water could potentially be lost from the soil through evapotranspiration and how much is actually available. When PED is high, plants do not have the full amount of water available they need for growth. As our climate changes, increasing temperatures and rainfall pattern changes are expected to increase PED, and the frequency and intensity of drought, particularly in currently drought-prone regions.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Layer ID 89486
Data type Grid
Resolution 5096.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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