Southern annular mode (1887–2014)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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7002
31
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is an index that describes climate variation around the South Pole and Antarctica, as far north as New Zealand. It indicates short-term climate variations that can influence New Zealand’s climate. Such climate variations can impact on our environment, industries, and recreational activities.
The variation is caused by the movement of a low-pressure belt that generates westerly winds. During a negative phase, the low pressure belt moves north, towards the equator. In New Zealand, this can cause increased westerly winds, unsettled weather, and storm activity over most of the country. Over the southern oceans, there are relatively less westerly winds and less storm activity.
During a positive phase, the low pressure belt moves south towards Antarctica. In New Zealand, this can cause relatively light winds and more settled weather. Over the southern oceans, there is increased westerly winds and storm activity.
This dataset relates to the "Southern annular mode" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52592
Data type Table
Row count 128
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning by region

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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6999
23
Added
11 Nov 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Nov 2016.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms. Ground strikes can cause significant damage to property and infrastructure, and injure or kill people and livestock. Lightning is often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.
This dataset relates to the "Lightning" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 53515
Data type Table
Row count 621924
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Autumn rainfall trends, 1960–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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7003
18
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Autumn rainfall trends for 30 representative sites from 1960–2016.
Rain is vital for life – it supplies the water we need to drink and to grow our food, keeps our ecosystems healthy, and supplies our electricity. New Zealand’s mountainous terrain and location in the roaring forties mean rainfall varies across the country. Changes in rainfall amount or timing can significantly affect agriculture, energy, recreation, and the environment. For example, an increase or decrease of rainfall in spring can have marked effects on crops or fish populations.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89402
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (1909–2013)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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6921
91
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is an important predictor of how tropical oceans and climate might influence New Zealand’s climate. Being able to predict the timing and intensity of an El Niño or La Niña climate phase is important in predicting and preparing for extreme climatic conditions, such as strong winds, heavy rain, or drought. Such extreme conditions can impact on our environment, industries, and recreational activities. ENSO is commonly measured using the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).
In New Zealand, an El Niño phase can cause colder winters. In summer it can result in more rain in the west and drought in the east. A La Niña phase can cause warmer temperatures, more rain in the north-east, and less rain in the south and south-west.
This dataset relates to the "El Niño Southern Oscillation" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52589
Data type Table
Row count 1729
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual maximum three-day rainfall totals (1950–2013

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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6936
66
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

A three-day rainfall measurement covers a single sustained rain event or a series of shorter events over a three-day period. Such measurements help us understand and prepare for flooding or rain-induced slips that could cause damage.
Further information can be found in:
Tait, A, Macara, G, & Paul, V. (2014) Preparation of climate datasets for the 2015 Environmental Synthesis Report: Temperature, Rainfall, Wind, Sunshine and Soil Moisture. Prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/Fwn9AL on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice (data.mfe.govt.nz/).
This dataset relates to the "Annual maximum three-day rainfall" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52580
Data type Table
Row count 1920
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual rainfall trends, 1960–2016

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

6932
65
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Annual rainfall trends for 30 representative sites from 1960–2016.
Rain is vital for life – it supplies the water we need to drink and to grow our food, keeps our ecosystems healthy, and supplies our electricity. New Zealand’s mountainous terrain and location in the roaring forties mean rainfall varies across the country. Changes in rainfall amount or timing can significantly affect agriculture, energy, recreation, and the environment. For example, an increase or decrease of rainfall in spring can have marked effects on crops or fish populations.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89400
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Mean annual sea-surface temperatures (1993–2013)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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6952
43
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

The ocean waters surrounding New Zealand vary in temperature from north to south. They interact with heat and moisture in the atmosphere and affect our weather. Sea surface temperature changes with climate drivers such as El Niño, and will change with climate change. The sea surface temperature anomaly provides an indication of the heat change in the ocean.
Long-term changes and short-term variability in sea-surface temperatures can affect marine processes, habitats, and species. some species may find it hard to survive in changing environmental conditions.
The oceanic sea surface temperature data comes from the NIWA Sea surface temperature Archive (NSA). There are 2 datasets, NSA Annual Means and NSA Annual Anomolies ,covering the Tasman, subtropical (STW) and Southern Antarctic (SAW) area and the total area. The data is available from 1993 to 2013 and the unit of measure is degrees Celsius .
For more information please see:
Uddstrom, MJ (2015) Sea Surface Temperature Data and Analysis for the 2015 Synthesis Report. For Ministry for the Environment. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/hRbGUJ on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice (data.mfe.govt.nz).
Trend results can be found in the excel file "Sea surface temperature trend statistics" found at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/DGXFS6.
This dataset relates to the "Sea surface temperature" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52581
Data type Table
Row count 84
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning strikes, 2001–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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6796
182
Added
16 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2017.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms and can occur within a cloud, between clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. By international standards, lightning does not occur frequently around New Zealand. However, ground strikes can injure or kill people and livestock, damage property and infrastructure, and, although rarely in New Zealand, spark forest fires. Thunderstorms are often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts and hail. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89470
Data type Table
Row count 2903389
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

New Zealand greenhouse gas emissions summary data, 1990–2015

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1
6900
57
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

New Zealand greenhouse gas emissions source and sink summary data by sector and gas for 1990-2015. Data are sourced from the 1990-2015 New Zealand Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) absorb heat from Earth’s surface, warming the atmosphere and changing our climate. New Zealand’s share of GHG emissions is very small, but our gross emissions per person are high. Emissions mainly come from combustion of fossil fuels that emit carbon dioxide (CO2), and agriculture which emits methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere much longer than other major GHGs. Because of this, today’s global CO2 emissions will continue to influence atmospheric CO2 concentrations for a very long time. Methane and N2O trap heat better than CO2 but leave the atmosphere faster.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89429
Data type Table
Row count 26
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Days with wind gusts greater than gale force (1975–13)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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6883
43
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

Strong wind events can cause significant damage, for example, to trees and buildings. They can occur with frontal weather systems and around strong convection events, such as thunderstorms. Global climate change may change the frequency of damaging wind events in almost all areas in New Zealand in winter and decrease the frequency in summer. Monitoring can help us gauge the potential of, and prepare for, such events.
Further information can be found in:
Tait, A, Macara, G, & Paul, V. (2014) Preparation of climate datasets for the 2015 Environmental Synthesis Report: Temperature, Rainfall, Wind, Sunshine and Soil Moisture. Prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/Fwn9AL on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice (data.mfe.govt.nz/).
This dataset relates to the "Occurrence of potentially damaging wind" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52585
Data type Table
Row count 8203
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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