Winter rainfall trends, 1960–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3926
23
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Winter rainfall trends for 30 representative sites from 1960–2016.
Rain is vital for life – it supplies the water we need to drink and to grow our food, keeps our ecosystems healthy, and supplies our electricity. New Zealand’s mountainous terrain and location in the roaring forties mean rainfall varies across the country. Changes in rainfall amount or timing can significantly affect agriculture, energy, recreation, and the environment. For example, an increase or decrease of rainfall in spring can have marked effects on crops or fish populations.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89405
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Water physical stocks for selected measures (1995–2014)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3307
25
Added
15 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2015.

New Zealand is a water-rich country. Water is found in a network of waterways and lakes, as ground water, in glaciers, and in the soil and plants. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns affect our water stocks, for example leading to low flows or floods. Water physical stocks show how climate changes can impact on our environment, its ecosystems, and ultimately our lifestyles.
Further information can be found in:
Collins, D, Zammit, C, Willsman, A & Henderson, R (2015) Surface water components of New Zealand’s National WaterAccounts, 1995-2014. Prepared for Ministry for the Environment May 2015. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/Tebsax on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice (data.mfe.govt.nz/).
This dataset relates to the "Water physical stocks: precipitation and evapotranspiration" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.
Variables: Abstraction for Hydrogeneration, Change in Ice, Change in Lakes, Change in Snow, Change in Soil Moisture, Discharge by Hydrogeneration, Evapotranspiration, Inflow from other regions, Outflow to other regions, Outflow to sea, Precipitation, Total.

Table ID 52596
Data type Table
Row count 240
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Water physical stocks by region (1995–2014)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3979
37
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

New Zealand is a water-rich country. Water is found in a network of waterways and lakes, as ground water, in glaciers, and in the soil and plants. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns affect our water stocks, for example leading to low flows or floods. Water physical stocks show how climate changes can impact on our environment, its ecosystems, and ultimately our lifestyles.
Further information can be found in:
Collins, D, Zammit, C, Willsman, A & Henderson, R (2015) Surface water components of New Zealand’s National WaterAccounts, 1995-2014. Prepared for Ministry for the Environment May 2015. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/Tebsax on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice (data.mfe.govt.nz/).
This dataset relates to the "Water physical stocks: precipitation and evapotranspiration" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52578
Data type Table
Row count 3520
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in total sunshine hours, 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3737
14
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Trends in total sunshine hours, 1972–2016.
Sunshine is essential for our mental and physical well–being and plant growth. It is also important for tourism and recreation.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89444
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in percent of annual rainfall in the 95th percentile (r95ptot), 1960–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3697
7
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Trends in percent of annual rainfall in the 95th percentile (r95ptot), 1960–2016.
Intense rainfall can result in flash floods or land slips that damage homes and property, disrupt transportation, and endanger lives. It can also interfere with recreation and increase erosion. Changes to the frequency of intense rainfall events can alter biodiversity.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89434
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in PED, 1972/3–2015/6

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3904
2
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Trends in potential evapostranspiration deficit (PED), 1972–2016.
Soil moisture is vital for plant growth. When plants cannot access the water they need, growth is reduced, affecting crops and food for livestock, and native biodiversity. Over a sustained period, a drought can have significant social and economic costs, particularly for rural communities.
Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED) can be thought of as a drought index. It is the difference between how much water could potentially be lost from the soil through evapotranspiration and how much is actually available. When PED is high, plants do not have the full amount of water available they need for growth. PED is measured in growing seasons (the 12 months from 1 July to 30 June of the following year. Data covers each of the growing seasons from 1 July 1972, with the last growing season in the series ending on 30 June 2016.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89438
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in peak UV index value, 1981–2017

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3928
5
Added
14 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2017.

Trends in daily peak UV index values at Invercargill, Lauder (Otago region), Christchurch, Paraparaumu (Wellington region), and Leigh (Auckland region). The strength of UV light is expressed as a solar UV index, starting from 0 (no UV) to 11+ (extreme).
Exposure to the sun's ultraviolet (UV) light helps our bodies make vitamin D, which we need for healthy bones and muscles. However, too much exposure to UV light can cause skin cancer. New Zealand has naturally high UV levels, and monitoring UV levels helps us understand the occurrence of skin cancer.
Ozone in the upper atmosphere absorbs some of the sun’s UV light, protecting us from harmful levels. The amount of UV radiation reaching the ground varies in relation to changes in the atmospheric ozone concentrations. The Antarctic ozone hole lies well to the south of New Zealand and does not have a large effect on New Zealand’s ozone concentrations.
The trend was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89469
Data type Table
Row count 5
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in ozone concentrations, 1978–2017

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3893
5
Added
14 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2017.

NIWA supplied ozone data in two forms, with different starting dates:
- measurements made using a Dobson spectrophotometer (number 72), from 1987
- data assimilated from satellite measurements recalibrated against the global Dobson network, from 1978.
NIWA takes measurements using the Dobson spectrophotometer 72 under clear-sky, direct sunlight conditions at Lauder in Otago. There are gaps in the time series due to days with cloud, rain, or too much wind. However, over the whole period, each individual calendar day of the year was measured. This allows us to calculate statistics based on the day of the year.
The trend was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89465
Data type Table
Row count 3
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in number of days with a maximum gust in the 99th percentile, 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

3902
6
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Trends in number of days with a maximum gust in the 99th percentile, 1972–2016. The number of days with a maximum gust in the 99th percentile provides information on the frequency of extreme wind events. Percentiles are obtained from all available daily maximum wind gust data. On average, the 99th percentile daily maximum wind gust will be exceeded on approximately 3.6 days per year. Therefore, annual counts higher than this indicate more days than usual with very strong wind gusts recorded; annual counts lower than 3.6 indicate fewer strong wind gust days than usual. By using a percentile threshold we can identify events that are extreme for a particular location. Some places are naturally subject to stronger winds than others, so vegetation can become ‘wind-hardened’ and may have a higher tolerance to high wind gusts (eg a 100 km/hr wind gust may be damaging at one location, but not at another). Using a relative threshold accounts for these differences and better captures extreme wind gust occurrences. The highest maximum gust per year and the average annual highest maximum wind gust both provide information on the magnitude of extreme wind events.
Steady wind can be an important resource, but strong gusts can damage property, topple trees, and disrupt transportation, communications, and electricity. Extreme wind events can occur with frontal weather systems, around strong convective storms such as thunderstorms, and with ex–tropical cyclones. Projections indicate climate change may alter the occurrence of extreme wind events, with the strength of extreme winds expected to increase over the southern half of the North Island and the South Island, especially east of the Southern Alps, and decrease from Northland to Bay of Plenty. Monitoring can help us gauge the potential of, and prepare for, such events.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89423
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in maximum highest annual wind gust, 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

3722
11
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Trends in maximum highest annual wind gust, 1972–2016. The number of days with a maximum gust in the 99th percentile provides information on the frequency of extreme wind events. Percentiles are obtained from all available daily maximum wind gust data. On average, the 99th percentile daily maximum wind gust will be exceeded on approximately 3.6 days per year. Therefore, annual counts higher than this indicate more days than usual with very strong wind gusts recorded; annual counts lower than 3.6 indicate fewer strong wind gust days than usual. By using a percentile threshold we can identify events that are extreme for a particular location. Some places are naturally subject to stronger winds than others, so vegetation can become ‘wind-hardened’ and may have a higher tolerance to high wind gusts (eg a 100 km/hr wind gust may be damaging at one location, but not at another). Using a relative threshold accounts for these differences and better captures extreme wind gust occurrences. The highest maximum gust per year and the average annual highest maximum wind gust both provide information on the magnitude of extreme wind events.
Steady wind can be an important resource, but strong gusts can damage property, topple trees, and disrupt transportation, communications, and electricity. Extreme wind events can occur with frontal weather systems, around strong convective storms such as thunderstorms, and with ex–tropical cyclones. Projections indicate climate change may alter the occurrence of extreme wind events, with the strength of extreme winds expected to increase over the southern half of the North Island and the South Island, especially east of the Southern Alps, and decrease from Northland to Bay of Plenty. Monitoring can help us gauge the potential of, and prepare for, such events.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89424
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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