Air pollutant emissions

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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7680
93
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

An emissions inventory provides information on the amount of key air pollutants that are released into the atmosphere for a given location over a given time period. This enables us to identify sources of pollutants. By understanding the amounts that different sources contribute, air quality can be better managed and modelled.
We evaluated emissions for five key pollutants for 2015, the most-recent year that data were readily available: particulate matter (PM) less than 10 micrometres in diameter (PM10), PM less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulphur dioxide (SO2), because they are the most important pollutants in New Zealand.
The grouped sources include: energy-related activities, construction dust, road dust, industrial process emissions (non-combustion), agriculture (emissions from animal housing), vegetation fires (burning agricultural residue and biomass burning), and incinerating of hazardous waste.
Only human-generated emissions were included in this emission inventory. No updated data for residential wood burning were available and was assumed to be the same as the 2013 national inventory.

Table ID 98424
Data type Table
Row count 26
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Road motor vehicle emissions

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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7379
78
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Road motor vehicles emit a range of air pollutants from their exhausts, and from brake and tyre wear. They are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. Exposure to these pollutants can damage health, with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer.

Road motor vehicles range from passenger vehicles to heavy commercial vehicles, including petrol and diesel vehicles. Vehicles for use in farm and construction are not included. While road motor vehicle travel predominantly involves petrol vehicles (approximately 73 percent of vehicle kilometres travelled), diesel vehicles (approximately 27 percent of vehicle kilometres travelled) contribute the majority of air pollutants from road motor vehicles – specifically particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NIWA, 2015; Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, 2015).

This dataset relates to the "Road motor vehicle emissions" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52433
Data type Table
Row count 130
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Sulphur dioxide concentrations and exceedances 2005–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5105
36
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a gas produced from human (eg industry and shipping) and natural (geothermal and volcanic) activities. Nationally, the main human-made source of sulphur oxides emissions is industry. SO2 is associated with respiratory problems, such as bronchitis, and can aggravate the symptoms of asthma and chronic lung disease.

Column headings:
- Disp_graph - Displayed on graph (1= yes, 0 = no)

This dataset relates to the "Sulphur dioxide concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52461
Data type Table
Row count 468
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Nitrogen dioxide concentrations and exceedances

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5693
40
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas. It can be emitted directly into the air but is most often formed when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals in the air. Nationally, road motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx, the collective term for NO2 and NO). NO2 may cause respiratory infections and reduced lung development and functioning.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) (collectively known as nitrogen oxides, NOx) are emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels and from natural sources such as volcanoes. The four main human-made sources of key pollutants in New Zealand are burning wood or coal for home heating, road motor vehicle use, industry, and household outdoor burning.

Column units:
- Disp_graph column: 1= displayed on graph; 0 = not displayed on graph
- Variable column: mg_m3 = micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Regional council and unitary authority monitoring of nitrogen dioxide" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52457
Data type Table
Row count 594
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Benzene concentrations 2012–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5410
19
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Benzene is a volatile organic compound. Motor vehicle use and home heating are the main sources of airborne benzene emissions. Natural sources include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene can affect the nervous system and is associated with some forms of cancer.

Benzene is emitted by human-made (motor vehicles, burning wood or coal for home heating, and some industrial activities) and natural (volcanoes and forest fires) sources.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Benzene concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52429
Data type Table
Row count 16
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Heavy metal concentrations, 2002–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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5549
28
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Inhaling particulate matter (PM) containing heavy metals can cause serious health effects (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013). Airborne arsenic is linked to lung cancers (WHO, 2013), and heart, liver, kidney, and nerve damage (Caussy, 2003). Nickel and vanadium are linked to lung and nasal sinus cancers. Lead can impair cognitive function in children and affect an adult’s cardiovascular system, even at low blood levels (WHO, 2013).
Heavy metals are also toxic to other organisms, and can bioaccumulate in animals, especially in aquatic ecosystems (Rahman, Hasegawa, & Lim, 2012). We don’t know how much airborne heavy metal is deposited in New Zealand.
We report on the concentrations of arsenic, lead, and vanadium in PM10 (PM 10 micrometres or less in diameter) from 2007-16 at Henderson – Auckland which were measured using a method directly comparable to relevant guidelines. We also report on arsenic, nickel, lead, and vanadium concentrations at 5 Auckland sites from 2005–16 that were measured using a method which cannot be directly compared to relevant guidelines but provides information on concentrations.
Arsenic is emitted when burning wood treated with copper chromium arsenic preservative (eg building project offcuts). A 2012 Auckland study showed that 17 percent of households may burn such wood (Stones-Havas, 2014).
Lead is emitted from burning wood coated with lead-based paint, by removing lead-based paint from buildings without proper safety precautions, and from industrial discharges (eg at metal smelters). In New Zealand, airborne nickel and vanadium concentrations are highest near ports and are associated with combustion exhaust from ships (Davy & Trompetter, 2018). Monitoring for lead has been limited since the fall in ambient lead concentrations after New Zealand’s petrol became lead free in 1996.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98416
Data type Table
Row count 19077
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM2.5 concentrations, 2008–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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4909
72
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

PM2.5 is made up of solid and liquid particles in the air with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometres. In New Zealand, most PM2.5 in the air results from combustion (burning wood for home heating, motor-vehicle exhaust), and to a lesser extent, particles formed from reactions in the atmosphere (secondary PM) and naturally occurring sea salt.
Short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5, even at low levels, is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of premature death, especially in vulnerable people (the young, the elderly, and people with respiratory illness). Emerging evidence points to possible links with cognitive function, neuro-development, and diabetes.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98413
Data type Table
Row count 33750
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

National PM10 concentrations 2006–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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7473
57
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of PM10 include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. Nationally, burning wood or coal for home heating is the main human-made source of PM10.

PM10 is of particular concern because it is found in high concentrations in some areas and can damage health. It is associated with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "PM10 annual average concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52442
Data type Table
Row count 8
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Carbon monoxide concentrations and exceedances 2005–2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5336
31
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas formed by incomplete combustion of fuels, in particular from road motor vehicles and burning wood and coal for home heating. It also occurs naturally, for example, from wild fires. CO can affect human health by interfering with the blood’s ability to carry oxygen and by aggravating heart conditions.

Road motor vehicles are the main source of carbon monoxide, followed closely by wood or coal burning for home heating. These two sources contribute 50 and 43 percent respectively of the combined carbon monoxide emissions produced by home heating, on-road vehicles and industry over a year.

Column units:
- Disp_graph column: 1= displayed on graph; 0 = not displayed on graph
- Variable column: mg_m3 = milligrams per cubic metre (mg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Carbon monoxide concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52447
Data type Table
Row count 504
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Health impacts of PM10, 2006 & 2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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6086
16
Added
17 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 17 Oct 2018.

PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometres in diameter) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 can be inhaled and the largest particles in this size fraction are deposited in the upper airways, while the smaller ones can deposit deep in the lungs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung problems have a higher risk of health effects from PM10 exposure. Health effects include decreased lung function or heart attack, and mortality.
We report on the modelled number of premature deaths for adults (30+ years), hospitalisations, and restricted activity days for people of all ages for years 2006 and 2016 only. The model only includes impacts that result from exposure to PM10 that comes from human activities.
We focus on PM10 from human activities because these sources can be managed, unlike PM from natural sources such as sea salt.
• Premature deaths are those, often preventable, occurring before a person reaches the age they could be expected to live to.
• Hospitalisations relate to those for respiratory and cardiac illnesses (not including cases leading to premature death).
• Restricted activity days occur when symptoms are sufficient to limit usual activities such as work or study. These days aren’t shared evenly across the population – people with asthma or other respiratory conditions would likely have more restricted activity days.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98462
Data type Table
Row count 12
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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