Health effects from PM10 2006 and 2012

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5073
11
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15 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2015.

Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 is of particular concern because of high concentrations in some areas. It can also damage health, with associated effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer. This indicator considers PM10 from human-made sources, such as burning wood or coal for home heating or road motor vehicle emissions.

We report on the estimated number of premature deaths, hospitalisations, and restricted activity days for the New Zealand population from exposure to PM10 from human activities.

• Premature deaths are deaths, often preventable, that occur before a person reaches the age they were expected to live to.
• Hospitalisations relate to hospitalisations for respiratory and cardiac illnesses (not including cases leading to premature death).
• Restricted activity days occur when symptoms are sufficient to limit usual activities such as work or study.

This dataset relates to the "Health effects from exposure to PM10" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52598
Data type Table
Row count 18
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 is of particular concern because of high concentrations in some areas. It can also damage health, with associated effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer. This indicator considers PM10 from human-made sources, such as burning wood or coal for home heating or road motor vehicle emissions.

We report on the estimated number of premature deaths, hospitalisations, and restricted activity days for the New Zealand population (per 100,000 people) from exposure to PM10 from human activities.

• Premature deaths are deaths, often preventable, that occur before a person reaches the age they were expected to live to.
• Hospitalisations relate to hospitalisations for respiratory and cardiac illnesses (not including cases leading to premature death).
• Restricted activity days occur when symptoms are sufficient to limit usual activities such as work or study.

This dataset relates to the "Health effects from exposure to PM10" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

The Health effects from PM10: 2012 updated HAPINZ model can be found at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/KJdi75 and the updated exposure model can be found at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/wgSS3a on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice (data.mfe.govt.nz/).

Table ID 52597
Data type Table
Row count 6
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Health impacts of PM10, 2006 & 2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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6124
16
Added
17 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 17 Oct 2018.

PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometres in diameter) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 can be inhaled and the largest particles in this size fraction are deposited in the upper airways, while the smaller ones can deposit deep in the lungs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung problems have a higher risk of health effects from PM10 exposure. Health effects include decreased lung function or heart attack, and mortality.
We report on the modelled number of premature deaths for adults (30+ years), hospitalisations, and restricted activity days for people of all ages for years 2006 and 2016 only. The model only includes impacts that result from exposure to PM10 that comes from human activities.
We focus on PM10 from human activities because these sources can be managed, unlike PM from natural sources such as sea salt.
• Premature deaths are those, often preventable, occurring before a person reaches the age they could be expected to live to.
• Hospitalisations relate to those for respiratory and cardiac illnesses (not including cases leading to premature death).
• Restricted activity days occur when symptoms are sufficient to limit usual activities such as work or study. These days aren’t shared evenly across the population – people with asthma or other respiratory conditions would likely have more restricted activity days.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98462
Data type Table
Row count 12
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Heavy metal concentrations, 2002–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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5583
29
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Inhaling particulate matter (PM) containing heavy metals can cause serious health effects (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013). Airborne arsenic is linked to lung cancers (WHO, 2013), and heart, liver, kidney, and nerve damage (Caussy, 2003). Nickel and vanadium are linked to lung and nasal sinus cancers. Lead can impair cognitive function in children and affect an adult’s cardiovascular system, even at low blood levels (WHO, 2013).
Heavy metals are also toxic to other organisms, and can bioaccumulate in animals, especially in aquatic ecosystems (Rahman, Hasegawa, & Lim, 2012). We don’t know how much airborne heavy metal is deposited in New Zealand.
We report on the concentrations of arsenic, lead, and vanadium in PM10 (PM 10 micrometres or less in diameter) from 2007-16 at Henderson – Auckland which were measured using a method directly comparable to relevant guidelines. We also report on arsenic, nickel, lead, and vanadium concentrations at 5 Auckland sites from 2005–16 that were measured using a method which cannot be directly compared to relevant guidelines but provides information on concentrations.
Arsenic is emitted when burning wood treated with copper chromium arsenic preservative (eg building project offcuts). A 2012 Auckland study showed that 17 percent of households may burn such wood (Stones-Havas, 2014).
Lead is emitted from burning wood coated with lead-based paint, by removing lead-based paint from buildings without proper safety precautions, and from industrial discharges (eg at metal smelters). In New Zealand, airborne nickel and vanadium concentrations are highest near ports and are associated with combustion exhaust from ships (Davy & Trompetter, 2018). Monitoring for lead has been limited since the fall in ambient lead concentrations after New Zealand’s petrol became lead free in 1996.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98416
Data type Table
Row count 19077
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lead concentrations 2005–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4950
10
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Lead is a heavy metal. Airborne sources include some industrial discharges, such as at metal smelters and the removal of lead-based paint from buildings without proper safety precautions. Lead can harm the nervous system and hearing, and impair mental development. Before 1996, when petrol became lead free, some New Zealand sites experienced elevated lead concentrations.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Lead concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52453
Data type Table
Row count 9
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

National PM10 concentrations 2006–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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7503
57
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of PM10 include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. Nationally, burning wood or coal for home heating is the main human-made source of PM10.

PM10 is of particular concern because it is found in high concentrations in some areas and can damage health. It is associated with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "PM10 annual average concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52442
Data type Table
Row count 8
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

National PM10 exceedances 2006–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4917
18
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of PM10 include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. Nationally, burning wood or coal for home heating is the main human-made source of PM10.

PM10 is of particular concern because it is found in high concentrations in some areas and can damage health. It is associated with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer.

Column headings:
- No_airsheds = number of airsheds

This dataset relates to the "PM10 daily concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52459
Data type Table
Row count 40
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Natural and human made PM10

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6119
13
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

We measure the annual concentrations and proportions of natural and anthropogenic particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10). PM10 in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources.

PM10 occurs naturally, for example, as sea salt, dust (airborne soil), or pollen. Airborne soil particles, although natural, are also produced by human-made processes such as construction and industrial activities. Natural particulates can make up a large portion of PM10 in some areas.

Research on the health effects of natural particulate matter is inconclusive, and the World Health Organization (WHO) considers all particulate matter of a certain size to be of equal toxicity. Natural particulates are generally in the PM2.5 to PM10 size range, which typically has less harmful health effects than smaller particles.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Natural particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10)" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52443
Data type Table
Row count 36
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Natural sources of particulate matter, 2000–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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4796
15
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) is made up of solid and liquid particles in the air. It is grouped according to its size – PM10 is less than 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter; PM2.5 is less than 2.5 µm in diameter. Health effects from exposure to PM include lung and cardiac disease, and premature death.
Natural sources of PM include sea salt, dust (airborne soil, also called crustal material), secondary sulphate, pollen, black carbon from wild fires, and volcanic ash. There is little evidence that sea salt particles themselves are harmful (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) although whether sea salt that has interacted with urban air pollutants is harmful is not known. PM can also be produced by human activities, such as dust from construction or unsealed roads, but this is not considered natural because it comes from human activity.
Natural sources of PM are important because although they cannot be managed they still contribute to ambient concentrations, which are subject to the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality (NESAQ). Exceedances of the NESAQ occur when the 24-hour average PM10 concentration exceeds 50 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). There is no NESAQ for PM2.5 exposure, so we report on exceedances of the WHO 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration guideline (25 µg/m3).
We report on data from nine sites from 2005–16 and report only on sea salt for natural PM because other sources of natural PM, such as dust and sulphate, can be generated by humans as well. We were not able to separate the natural from human-generated contributions. Analysis of particle size, composition, and sources in New Zealand shows that sea salt made the largest contribution to natural PM.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98425
Data type Table
Row count 13484
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Nitrogen dioxide concentration at state highway areas 2007–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4821
9
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas. It can be emitted directly into the air but is most often formed when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals in the air. Nationally, road motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx, the collective term for NO2 and NO). NO2 may cause respiratory infections and reduced lung development and functioning.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) (collectively known as nitrogen oxides, NOx) are emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels and from natural sources such as volcanoes. The four main human-made sources of key pollutants in New Zealand are burning wood or coal for home heating, road motor vehicle use, industry, and household outdoor burning.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Nitrogen dioxide concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52454
Data type Table
Row count 42
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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