Total suspended particulates concentration in Auckland, 1965–2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5104
22
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Total suspended particulates (TSP) consist of all solid particles and liquid droplets up to 100 micrometres (μm) in diameter (ie when compared with PM10 and PM2.5, TSP is the equivalent of PM100).

TSP can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry) and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of TSP include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. TSP also forms from reactions between gases or between gases and other particles.

The smaller components of TSP (PM10 and PM2.5) are associated with health effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer. Reporting on changes in TSP concentrations helps us understand long-term changes in particulate matter pollution.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Total suspended particulate concentration in Auckland" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52431
Data type Table
Row count 588
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Nitrogen dioxide concentrations: New Zealand Transport Agency data, 2010–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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4988
31
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas that is harmful to human health, ecosystems, and plants (US EPA, 2008). It can be emitted directly into the air but is often formed as a secondary pollutant when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) and ozone, which have their own health impacts. In New Zealand, motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the collective term for NO2 and NO. Because nitrogen dioxide concentrations are closely associated with vehicle emissions, it can be used as a proxy for other motor-vehicle pollutants such as benzene, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.
Human exposure to high nitrogen dioxide concentrations causes inflammation of the airways and respiratory problems, particularly asthma. Nitrogen dioxide causes leaf injury in plants exposed to high levels. It also contributes to forming secondary particulate matter and ozone, which have their own health impacts.
We report on observed nitrogen dioxide concentrations from the New Zealand Transport Agency’s (NZTA) monitoring network. NZTA has comprehensive coverage across New Zealand.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98426
Data type Table
Row count 828
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas that is harmful to human health (United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 2021), ecosystems, and plants (US EPA, 2008). It can be emitted directly into the air but is often formed as a secondary pollutant when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) and ozone, which have their own health impacts. In New Zealand, motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) the collective term for NO2 and NO.

Human exposure to high nitrogen dioxide concentrations causes inflammation of the airways and respiratory problems and can trigger asthma attacks. Nitrogen dioxide can cause leaf injury in plants exposed to high levels. It also contributes to forming secondary particulate matter and ozone, which have their own health impacts.

Nitrogen dioxide is a gas primarily formed through burning fossil fuels, mainly by motor vehicles (particularly diesel), but also from industrial emissions. Because nitrogen dioxide concentrations are closely associated with vehicle emissions, it can be used as a proxy for other motor-vehicle pollutants such as benzene, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

This dataset reports on the trends assessed for the period 2015-2020.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 106275
Data type Table
Row count 114
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Air pollutant emissions

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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7908
95
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

An emissions inventory provides information on the amount of key air pollutants that are released into the atmosphere for a given location over a given time period. This enables us to identify sources of pollutants. By understanding the amounts that different sources contribute, air quality can be better managed and modelled.
We evaluated emissions for five key pollutants for 2015, the most-recent year that data were readily available: particulate matter (PM) less than 10 micrometres in diameter (PM10), PM less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulphur dioxide (SO2), because they are the most important pollutants in New Zealand.
The grouped sources include: energy-related activities, construction dust, road dust, industrial process emissions (non-combustion), agriculture (emissions from animal housing), vegetation fires (burning agricultural residue and biomass burning), and incinerating of hazardous waste.
Only human-generated emissions were included in this emission inventory. No updated data for residential wood burning were available and was assumed to be the same as the 2013 national inventory.

Table ID 98424
Data type Table
Row count 26
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Road motor vehicle emissions

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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7567
78
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Road motor vehicles emit a range of air pollutants from their exhausts, and from brake and tyre wear. They are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. Exposure to these pollutants can damage health, with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer.

Road motor vehicles range from passenger vehicles to heavy commercial vehicles, including petrol and diesel vehicles. Vehicles for use in farm and construction are not included. While road motor vehicle travel predominantly involves petrol vehicles (approximately 73 percent of vehicle kilometres travelled), diesel vehicles (approximately 27 percent of vehicle kilometres travelled) contribute the majority of air pollutants from road motor vehicles – specifically particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NIWA, 2015; Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, 2015).

This dataset relates to the "Road motor vehicle emissions" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52433
Data type Table
Row count 130
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Total suspended particulates exceedances in Auckland, 1965–2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4971
6
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Total suspended particulates (TSP) consist of all solid particles and liquid droplets up to 100 micrometres (μm) in diameter (ie when compared with PM10 and PM2.5, TSP is the equivalent of PM100).

TSP can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry) and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of TSP include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. TSP also forms from reactions between gases or between gases and other particles.

The smaller components of TSP (PM10 and PM2.5) are associated with health effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer. Reporting on changes in TSP concentrations helps us understand long-term changes in particulate matter pollution.

Column heading:
- No_exceed = number of exceedances

This dataset relates to the "Total suspended particulate concentration in Auckland" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52430
Data type Table
Row count 49
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Heavy metal concentrations, 2002–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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5733
29
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Inhaling particulate matter (PM) containing heavy metals can cause serious health effects (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013). Airborne arsenic is linked to lung cancers (WHO, 2013), and heart, liver, kidney, and nerve damage (Caussy, 2003). Nickel and vanadium are linked to lung and nasal sinus cancers. Lead can impair cognitive function in children and affect an adult’s cardiovascular system, even at low blood levels (WHO, 2013).
Heavy metals are also toxic to other organisms, and can bioaccumulate in animals, especially in aquatic ecosystems (Rahman, Hasegawa, & Lim, 2012). We don’t know how much airborne heavy metal is deposited in New Zealand.
We report on the concentrations of arsenic, lead, and vanadium in PM10 (PM 10 micrometres or less in diameter) from 2007-16 at Henderson – Auckland which were measured using a method directly comparable to relevant guidelines. We also report on arsenic, nickel, lead, and vanadium concentrations at 5 Auckland sites from 2005–16 that were measured using a method which cannot be directly compared to relevant guidelines but provides information on concentrations.
Arsenic is emitted when burning wood treated with copper chromium arsenic preservative (eg building project offcuts). A 2012 Auckland study showed that 17 percent of households may burn such wood (Stones-Havas, 2014).
Lead is emitted from burning wood coated with lead-based paint, by removing lead-based paint from buildings without proper safety precautions, and from industrial discharges (eg at metal smelters). In New Zealand, airborne nickel and vanadium concentrations are highest near ports and are associated with combustion exhaust from ships (Davy & Trompetter, 2018). Monitoring for lead has been limited since the fall in ambient lead concentrations after New Zealand’s petrol became lead free in 1996.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98416
Data type Table
Row count 19077
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Particulate matter 2.5 concentrations, 2006-2021

16
1
Added
13 Oct 2021

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2021.

Particulate matter (PM) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM2.5 particles have a diameter less than 2.5 micrometres. They can be inhaled and deposited deep in the lungs where air-gas exchange occurs.

Short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5, even at low levels, is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of premature death, especially in vulnerable people (the young, the elderly, and people with respiratory illness). Emerging evidence points to possible links with cognitive function, neuro-development, and diabetes.

In New Zealand, most PM2.5 in the air results from combustion (for example, burning wood for home heating), and to a lesser extent, from reactions in the atmosphere (secondary PM), and from naturally occurring sea salt.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 106270
Data type Table
Row count 60549
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas that is harmful to human health (United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 2021), ecosystems, and plants (US EPA, 2008). It can be emitted directly into the air but is often formed as a secondary pollutant when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) and ozone, which have their own health impacts. In New Zealand, motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) the collective term for NO2 and NO.

Human exposure to high nitrogen dioxide concentrations causes inflammation of the airways and respiratory problems and can trigger asthma attacks. Nitrogen dioxide can cause leaf injury in plants exposed to high levels. It also contributes to forming secondary particulate matter and ozone, which have their own health impacts.

Nitrogen dioxide is a gas primarily formed through burning fossil fuels, mainly by motor vehicles (particularly diesel), but also from industrial emissions. Because nitrogen dioxide concentrations are closely associated with vehicle emissions, it can be used as a proxy for other motor-vehicle pollutants such as benzene, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

This dataset reports on the annual trends assessed for the period 2011-2020.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 106274
Data type Table
Row count 110
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Natural sources of particulate matter, 2000–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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4939
15
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) is made up of solid and liquid particles in the air. It is grouped according to its size – PM10 is less than 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter; PM2.5 is less than 2.5 µm in diameter. Health effects from exposure to PM include lung and cardiac disease, and premature death.
Natural sources of PM include sea salt, dust (airborne soil, also called crustal material), secondary sulphate, pollen, black carbon from wild fires, and volcanic ash. There is little evidence that sea salt particles themselves are harmful (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) although whether sea salt that has interacted with urban air pollutants is harmful is not known. PM can also be produced by human activities, such as dust from construction or unsealed roads, but this is not considered natural because it comes from human activity.
Natural sources of PM are important because although they cannot be managed they still contribute to ambient concentrations, which are subject to the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality (NESAQ). Exceedances of the NESAQ occur when the 24-hour average PM10 concentration exceeds 50 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). There is no NESAQ for PM2.5 exposure, so we report on exceedances of the WHO 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration guideline (25 µg/m3).
We report on data from nine sites from 2005–16 and report only on sea salt for natural PM because other sources of natural PM, such as dust and sulphate, can be generated by humans as well. We were not able to separate the natural from human-generated contributions. Analysis of particle size, composition, and sources in New Zealand shows that sea salt made the largest contribution to natural PM.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98425
Data type Table
Row count 13484
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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