Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED), 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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11010
68
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Interpolated PED values at 30 regionally representative sites.
Soil moisture is vital for plant growth. When plants cannot access the water they need, growth is reduced, affecting crops and food for livestock, and native biodiversity. Over a sustained period, a drought can have significant social and economic costs, particularly for rural communities.
Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED) can be thought of as a drought index. It is the difference between how much water could potentially be lost from the soil through evapotranspiration and how much is actually available. When PED is high, plants do not have the full amount of water available they need for growth. PED is measured in growing seasons (the 12 months from 1 July to 30 June of the following year. Data covers each of the growing seasons from 1 July 1972, with the last growing season in the series ending on 30 June 2016. More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89437
Data type Table
Row count 1320
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Cultural Health Index scores for waterways, 2005–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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7450
42
Added
25 Apr 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 25 Apr 2017.

Cultural Health Index scores for a waterway is a combination measure of historical cultural use and access, mahinga kai assessment, and water quality assessment from a cultural perspective of a site on a waterway.

The Cultural Health Index scores compile this information into a classification system to provide an overall grading of the state of a site and how the state of a site on a waterway affects the mauri, the ability for tangata whenua to feed the hapu and iwi and the overall water quality for the site. These are all important indicators of the cultural health of a waterway, and are also a consideration for other cultural and recreational activities like karakia, cleansing, swimming and wading.

Table ID 53617
Data type Table
Row count 42
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Monthly El Niño Southern Oscillation Index, 1986–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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9502
101
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the movement of warm equatorial water across the Pacific Ocean and the atmospheric response. It occurs every 2–7 years, typically lasting 6–18 months. ENSO has three phases: neutral, El Niño and La Niña. In New Zealand an El Niño phase in summer can bring increased westerly winds, more rain in the west, and drought in the east; in winter it can lead to more cool southerly winds. During a La Niña phase we may experience more north-easterly winds, wetter conditions in the north and east, and higher sea levels.
This dataset relates to monthly ENSO values.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89381
Data type Table
Row count 372
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Soil quality, state, 1996 - 2018

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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2839
29
Updated
14 Apr 2021

This dataset was last updated on MfE Data Service on 14 Apr 2021.

DATA SOURCE: Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research; regional and district councils

[Technical report available at environment.govt.nz/publications/soil-quality-data... and environment.govt.nz/publications/soil-quality-and-...]

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency

Dataset used to develop the "Soil quality and land use" indicator [available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/soil-quality-and-land...]

We report on seven soil properties from 1996 to 2018: pH (a measure of acidity), Olsen phosphorus (a measure of fertility), total carbon, total nitrogen, and anaerobically mineralisable nitrogen (measures of organic reserves), and macroporosity and bulk density (measures of physical status). These are assessed across nine land uses. We report the proportion of sites above, below, and within soil quality target ranges for each of the seven soil quality indicators by land use, as well as by soil order.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf. Technical report links for this dataset are environment.govt.nz/publications/soil-quality-data... and environment.govt.nz/publications/soil-quality-and-...

Table ID 105416
Data type Table
Row count 26534
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

River water quality, raw data by site, 1975-2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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25801
533
Added
30 Mar 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 30 Mar 2017.

River water quality water is valued for many reasons including ecological function and habitat, recreational value, its role in supporting people and industry, and its cultural significance. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are essential for plant growth, however too much in rivers can lead to ‘nuisance’ growths of river algae and aquatic plants, degrading habitat. High concentrations in the form of ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen can be toxic to fish and other aquatic animals. Water clarity is a measure of underwater visibility, and affects habitat of aquatic life such as fish and birds, and can also impact on aesthetic values and recreational use of rivers and streams. Escherichia coli (E.coli) can indicate the presence of pathogens (disease-causing organisms) from animal or human faeces, which can cause illness.

File contains raw data collected at regional council and NIWA monitored sites over the period 1975-2013. Fields are described as follows. Refer to Larned et al. 2015 for further details:
* nemarid ---- Unique NIWA ID
* lawaid ---- Unique LAWA ID
* rcid ---- Collection agency
* srcid ---- Region site is located in
* sflag ---- River (r) or Estuary (e)
* river ---- River name
* location ---- Name of site, assigned by collection agency
* nzmge ---- easting
* nzmgn ---- northing
* nzreach ---- REC1 segment identifier
* sdate ---- Sample date (yyyy-mm-dd)
* Q ---- Flow recorded when sample was taken (if available), cumecs
* npid ---- NIWA parameter ID (as used in Larned et al. 2015)
* lpid ---- LAWA parameter ID
* fdval ---- Parameter value (units are mg/m3, except CLAR (m) and ECOLI (n/100 mL))

For more information please see:
Larned, S, Snelder, T, Unwin, M, McBride, G, Verburg, P, McMillan, H (2015).Analysis of Water Quality in New Zealand lakes and Rivers: data sources, data sets, assumptions, limitations, methods and results. NIWA Client Report no. CHC2015-033. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/Mo8VUY from the Ministry for the Environment dataservice.

This dataset relates to the "River water quality" measures on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 53590
Data type Table
Row count 732014
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lake water quality, state, 2016 - 2020

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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575
4
Added
11 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "Lake water quality" indicator (available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/lake-water-quality).

We report on eight biological, chemical, and physical lake water quality attributes based on measurements made at monitored lake sites: trophic level index (TLI), chlorophyll-a, E. coli, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, and clarity.

For all attributes we report on the median values for monitored sites during the period 2016–20. For selected attributes we also report:

  • how these values compare to the National Objectives Framework (NOF) bands related to ecosystem health (trophic level), toxicity, and E. coli (MfE, 2020)
  • a comparison of NOF and trophic level index (TLI) bands at monitored sites with the proportion of human modified landcover in the upstream catchment area

High concentrations of the measured biological and chemical attributes or low clarity indicates poor habitats for some species of animals and plants, risks for human recreation, potential toxic effects on aquatic life, and poor overall lake health.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf. Summary report available at environment.govt.nz/publications/environment-aotea....

Table ID 109650
Data type Table
Row count 10150
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Ocean acidification, 1998–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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10514
93
Added
14 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2017.

The pH of New Zealand subantarctic waters is calculated from pCO2 (dissolved carbon dioxide) and alkalinity measurements using refitted Mehrbach constants (see Mehrbach et al, 1973; Dickson & Millero, 1987), and in-situ temperature taken from the Munida time-series transect off the Otago coast. Measurements of pCO2 are taken every two months.
The Munida transect, in the subantarctic waters off Otago, is the Southern Hemisphere’s longest-running record of pH measurements (NIWA, 2015).
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our Environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89461
Data type Table
Row count 660
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Rainfall, 1960 - 2019

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3551
97
Added
14 Oct 2020

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2020.

DATA SOURCE: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)
[Technical report available at www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/environmental-reporti...]

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency

Dataset used to develop the "Greenhouse gas concentrations" indicator [available at www.stats.govtnz/indicators/greenhouse-gas-concent...]

This lowest aggregation dataset, was used to develop two ‘Our Atmosphere and Climate’ indicators. See Statistics New Zealand indicator links for specific methodologies and state/trend datasets (see ‘Shiny App’ downloads).
1) Rainfall (www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/rainfall)
2) Extreme rainfall (a. www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/extreme-rainfall

This dataset shows daily rainfall at 30 sites across New Zealand from 1960 to 2019.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 105055
Data type Table
Row count 657450
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Annual rainfall trends, 1960–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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8574
75
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Annual rainfall trends for 30 representative sites from 1960–2016.
Rain is vital for life – it supplies the water we need to drink and to grow our food, keeps our ecosystems healthy, and supplies our electricity. New Zealand’s mountainous terrain and location in the roaring forties mean rainfall varies across the country. Changes in rainfall amount or timing can significantly affect agriculture, energy, recreation, and the environment. For example, an increase or decrease of rainfall in spring can have marked effects on crops or fish populations.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89400
Data type Table
Row count 30
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Highly erodible land 2012

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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7468
31
Added
16 Apr 2019

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Apr 2019.

The data identifies five classes of land in New Zealand at risk of erosion:

  1. high landslide risk – delivery to stream
  2. high landslide risk – non-delivery to steam
  3. moderate earthflow risk
  4. severe earthflow risk
  5. gully risk

Landslide erosion is the shallow (approximately 1m) and sudden failure of soil slopes during storm rainfall. Earthflow erosion is the slow downward movement (approximately 1m/year) of wet soil slopes towards waterways. Gully erosion is massive soil erosion that begins at gully heads and expands up hillsides over decadal time scales.

Erosion can have negative consequences on land productivity, water quality (via increased sedimentation and turbidity), the natural form of the land, and infrastructure.

New Zealand experiences high rates of soil erosion. In the North Island, this is mostly due to the historical clearance of forest for agriculture (see also Estimated long-term soil erosion). In contrast, erosion in the South Island is mostly due to natural processes, primarily high rainfall and steep mountain slopes.

It is important to identify areas of land at risk of severe erosion to inform land-use decisions and help prioritise regional soil conservation work.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 99877
Data type Table
Row count 240
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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