Long term soil erosion North Island 2012

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1750
34
Added
09 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 09 Feb 2016.

"Long-term soil erosion is the average mass of soil lost per square kilometre per year (tonnes/km2/year) over a period of approximately 10 years. It is extrapolated from long-term measurements of sediment load in rivers. Extrapolation is based on mean annual rainfall, rock type, and land cover. The total sediment in rivers (tonnes/year) for a particular region is the sum of all soil erosion over the entire region (Dymond et al, 2010). Soil-erosion rates were calculated to 2012.

This data set relates to the "Estimated long-term soil erosion" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website."

Layer ID 52832
Data type Grid
Resolution 100.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Erosion risk North Island 2012

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3723
81
Added
12 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Feb 2016.

"This data records estimated erosion risk for different areas in the North Island.

New Zealand experiences high rates of soil erosion. In the North Island, this is mostly due to the historical clearance of forest for agriculture (see also Estimated long-term soil erosion). In contrast, erosion in the South Island is mostly due to natural processes, primarily high rainfall and steep mountain slopes.
Highly erodible land comprises land at risk of landsliding, gullying, or earthflow erosion if it does not have protective woody vegetation (Dymond et al, 2006). Landsliding occurs on steep slopes where the soils do not have the support of tree roots.
Gullying and earthflow erosion can occur on all slopes, irrespective of steepness, but the land is only considered at risk if it does not have woody vegetation.
Landslide erosion is the shallow (approximately 1m) and sudden failure of soil slopes during storm rainfall. Gully erosion is massive soil erosion that begins at gully heads and expands up hillsides, over decadal time scales. Earthflow erosion is the slow downward movement (approximately 1m/year) of wet soil slopes towards waterways.

This data set relates to the "Estimated highly erodible land in the North Island" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website."

Layer ID 53177
Data type Image/Raster
Resolution 100.000m
Services Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Indigenous vegetation cover remaining and protection 2001–2012

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3538
103
Added
11 Jan 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Jan 2016.

"New Zealand’s land area has been divided into 500 land environments, each defined by their unique climate, topography, and soils. The extent to which indigenous vegetation is represented in these different land environments, and how that vegetation is formally protected, is described by ‘threatened environment’ categories. These categories can be monitored to help us understand the effects of land cover change on indigenous biodiversity.

This data set relates to the "Indigenous cover and protection in land environments" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website."

Layer ID 52765
Data type Vector multipolygon
Feature count 815185
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Land cover database v4 0 class orders

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4002
205
Added
11 Jan 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Jan 2016.

"Land cover describes the extent of vegetation, water bodies, built environments, and bare natural surfaces (eg gravel and rock) across New Zealand. Measuring the composition and changes in land cover can help us understand the pressures that different land uses are placing on the biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems.

This data set relates to the "Land cover" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website."

Layer ID 52764
Data type Vector multipolygon
Feature count 479353
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Prediction of wetlands before humans arrived

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3573
145
Added
11 Jan 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Jan 2016.

"Wetlands support unique biodiversity and provide important services. They clean water of nutrients and sediment, help dampen floods, provide habitat, and act as carbon sinks. They are also valued for their spiritual and cultural significance and as important sources of food and materials, such as flax. Draining them for agricultural and urban development has reduced their extent. Understanding this reduction provides insight into the loss of biodiversity and natural function.
This dataset relates to the ""Wetland extent"" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website. "

Layer ID 52677
Data type Vector multipolygon
Feature count 32422
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Current wetland extent, 2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4481
231
Added
11 Jan 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Jan 2016.

"Wetlands support unique biodiversity and provide important services. They clean water of nutrients and sediment, help dampen floods, provide habitat, and act as carbon sinks. They are also valued for their spiritual and cultural significance and as important sources of food and materials, such as flax. Draining them for agricultural and urban development has reduced their extent. Understanding this reduction provides insight into the loss of biodiversity and natural function.
This dataset relates to the ""Wetland extent"" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website. "

Layer ID 52676
Data type Vector multipolygon
Feature count 45847
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning_GroundStrikes_by_Region

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3453
69
Updated
24 Feb 2017

This dataset was last updated on MfE Data Service on 24 Feb 2017.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms. Ground strikes can cause significant damage to property and infrastructure, and injure or kill people and livestock. Lightning is often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.
This dataset relates to the "Lightning" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Layer ID 53558
Data type Vector point
Feature count 621924
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning strike density, 2000–14

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1029
24
Added
10 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 10 Feb 2016.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity, from thunderstorms, that equalises areas of positive and negative charge, for example, between a storm cloud and the ground. Thunderstorms form as a result of rapidly rising air with a high moisture content (humidity). On average, 1 in 10 lightning discharges strikes the ground (or sea) (Metservice, 2015). Lightning (and therefore thunderstorms) are also often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts, and in extreme cases tornadoes.

By international standards, lightning does not occur frequently around New Zealand. However, thunderstorms, and thus lightning, can cause injury and damage (Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, 2010), and may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change (Mullen et. al., 2011).

This data shows the average annual number of lightning strikes per 25km square.

This dataset relates to the "Lightning" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: grid/point

Unit: strikes/25km2/year

Further information can be found in:

MetService (nd). Lightning observation services. Accessed 3 June 2015 from www.metservice.com.

Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (2010). Thunderstorms. Working from the same page: Consistent messages for CDEM (p3). Available from www.civildefence.govt.nz.

Mullan, B, Carey-Smith, T, Griffiths, G, & Sood, A (2011). Scenarios of storminess and regional wind extremes under climate change. NIWA Client Report: WLG2010-31 (pvii). Available from www.niwa.co.nz.

Layer ID 52851
Data type Grid
Resolution 5000.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning recorders

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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3293
26
Added
18 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 18 Feb 2016.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms. Ground strikes can cause significant damage to property and infrastructure, and injure or kill people and livestock. Lightning is often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.

This dataset shows the location of sensors in the New Zealand Lightning Detection Network (NZLDN), run by MetService.

Sensors around the country detect lightning over the New Zealand land mass and a short distance out to sea. These sensors detect very accurately the electrical discharge, location, and time, as well as noting other parameters such as current strength. The NZLDN records both cloud-to-cloud and cloud-to-ground strikes.

Layer ID 53312
Data type Vector point
Feature count 10
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Number of extreme wave events exceeding 4m in coastal regions, 2008–15

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2751
4
Added
19 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 19 Oct 2016.

Extreme wave indexes estimate the occurrence of extreme wave events in coastal and oceanic waters. Extreme wave indexes estimate the number of times a significant wave height exceeds one of three threshold values for at least 12 hours in 24 marine regions. The three wave-height thresholds are four metres, six metres, and eight metres.
This indicator estimates the exceedances of a wave-height threshold for each year from 2008 to 2015 in coastal regions.
Significant wave height is a measure of the ‘typical’ wave height in a place over a time period. It is four times the standard deviation of the water surface if, for example, you were to measure water moving up and down a jetty piling for an hour. The largest individual wave will typically have a height around twice the significant wave height.
We use three wave-height thresholds because of the regional variation in extreme wave events. In general, the north experiences less exposure to consistently strong winds, and the waves generated by them, than the south. Four-metre tall waves are considered extreme in the northern-most parts of New Zealand but are more common in the south. For the southern-most parts of New Zealand, eight-metre waves better represent extreme wave events.
This dataset relates to the number of extreme wave events exceeding the four metre threshold in coastal regions.

Layer ID 53500
Data type Vector multipolygon
Feature count 144
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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