Coastal and estaurine water quality, state, 2016-2020

48
0
Added
23 Nov 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 23 Nov 2022.

This data set reports on state for the period 2016 to 2020.

Coastal and estuarine ecosystems are affected by changes in water quality.

Nutrients
The two main nutrients of concern in coastal and estuarine ecosystems are nitrogen and, to a lesser degree, phosphorus. An overload of nutrients (eutrophication) can lead to algal blooms that can kill marine life by depleting oxygen levels. Some bloom-forming algal species also contain toxins that can harm marine life, and can pass through food chains to humans (for example, via shellfish poisoning).

Microbiological
Abundant Enterococci _and faecal coliform bacteria indicate the possible presence of human faecal pathogens in coastal waters and represent the risk of infectious disease. Chlorophyll-_a is a measure of phytoplankton biomass and is a primary indicator of eutrophication.

Optical
High suspended sediment concentrations are associated with estuarine and coastal sedimentation, reduced light levels in benthic (seabed) environments, and reduced feeding rates and health of estuarine and coastal animals (Lowe et al., 2015). Visual clarity and turbidity are monitored because light affects primary production, plant and animal distributions and ecological health, aesthetic quality, and recreational values (Davies-Colley et al., 2003).

Physico-chemical
Dissolved oxygen is fundamental to supporting marine life. Low levels of dissolved oxygen can have adverse effects on aquatic fauna, from reduced growth rates to death from lack of oxygen (Tomasetti & Gobler, 2020). Decreased pH results from the absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere by seawater but can also reflect local processes caused by eutrophication (Cai et al., 2011; Fraser et al., 2021). Changes in the pH of seawater can have harmful effects on marine life, impacting chemical communication, reproduction, and growth. The building of skeletons in marine organisms is particularly sensitive to acidity, so acidification (lower pH) of sea waters can be harmful for organisms such as shellfish and corals (Fabry et al., 2008). Salinity provides information on the freshwater content of coastal waters. Water temperature is important as it controls biochemical processes and affects the balance of parameters such as dissolved oxygen levels. As a result, seawater temperature determines distributions of many marine plants and animals (Kleisner et al., 2017).

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "Coastal and estuarine water quality, trends" indicator (available at Coastal and estuarine water quality | Stats NZ).

Layer ID 111138
Data type Vector point
Feature count 24467
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

This data set reports on trends for 15 coastal and estuarine water quality measures, grouped below by type, monitored at sites across Aotearoa New Zealand between 2006 and 2020:

  • nutrient – ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen (unfiltered), dissolved reactive phosphorus, and total phosphorus (unfiltered)
  • microbiological – faecal coliforms, Enterococci, and chlorophyll-a
  • optical – visual clarity, turbidity, and suspended solids (inorganic and organic)
  • physico-chemical – dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, and temperature.

We present trends for the period 2011 to 2020.

Coastal and estuarine ecosystems are affected by changes in water quality.

Nutrients
The two main nutrients of concern in coastal and estuarine ecosystems are nitrogen and, to a lesser degree, phosphorus. An overload of nutrients (eutrophication) can lead to algal blooms that can kill marine life by depleting oxygen levels. Some bloom-forming algal species also contain toxins that can harm marine life, and can pass through food chains to humans (for example, via shellfish poisoning).

Microbiological
Abundant Enterococci _and faecal coliform bacteria indicate the possible presence of human faecal pathogens in coastal waters and represent the risk of infectious disease. Chlorophyll-_a is a measure of phytoplankton biomass and is a primary indicator of eutrophication.

Optical
High suspended sediment concentrations are associated with estuarine and coastal sedimentation, reduced light levels in benthic (seabed) environments, and reduced feeding rates and health of estuarine and coastal animals (Lowe et al., 2015). Visual clarity and turbidity are monitored because light affects primary production, plant and animal distributions and ecological health, aesthetic quality, and recreational values (Davies-Colley et al., 2003).

Physico-chemical
Dissolved oxygen is fundamental to supporting marine life. Low levels of dissolved oxygen can have adverse effects on aquatic fauna, from reduced growth rates to death from lack of oxygen (Tomasetti & Gobler, 2020). Decreased pH results from the absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere by seawater but can also reflect local processes caused by eutrophication (Cai et al., 2011; Fraser et al., 2021). Changes in the pH of seawater can have harmful effects on marine life, impacting chemical communication, reproduction, and growth. The building of skeletons in marine organisms is particularly sensitive to acidity, so acidification (lower pH) of sea waters can be harmful for organisms such as shellfish and corals (Fabry et al., 2008). Salinity provides information on the freshwater content of coastal waters. Water temperature is important as it controls biochemical processes and affects the balance of parameters such as dissolved oxygen levels. As a result, seawater temperature determines distributions of many marine plants and animals (Kleisner et al., 2017).

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "Coastal and estuarine water quality, trends" indicator (available at ++Coastal and estuarine water quality | Stats NZ++).

Layer ID 111131
Data type Vector point
Feature count 3024
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Ocean acidification, New Zealand Ocean Acidification Observing Network, state, 2015 - 2021

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

688
5
Added
18 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 18 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Stats NZ to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "Ocean acidification" indicator (available at  www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/ocean-acidification).

This data set measures the pH at selected coastal sites via the New Zealand Ocean Acidification Observing Network (NZOA-ON) from 2015 to 2021.

Ocean acidification describes the long-term decrease in the pH of our oceans and coastal waters. This indicator measures:

  • pH at selected coastal sites (New Zealand Ocean Acidification Observing Network, NZOA-ON) from 2015 to 2021.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 110171
Data type Table
Row count 15588
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Ocean acidification, Munida, state 1998 - 2020

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

706
3
Added
18 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 18 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Stats NZ to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "Ocean acidification" indicator (available at  www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/ocean-acidification).

This data set measures the change in pH in subantarctic surface waters at a station east of Otago from 1998 to 2020.

Ocean acidification describes the long-term decrease in the pH of our oceans and coastal waters. This indicator measures:

  • change in pH, acidity and pCO2 (a measure of dissolved carbon dioxide) in New Zealand’s subantarctic surface waters (Munida Transect) from 1998 to 2020.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 110170
Data type Table
Row count 1088
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual glacier ice volumes, 1978 - 2020

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

562
5
Added
11 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "Annual glacier ice volumes" indicator (available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/annual-glacier-ice-vo...).

This dataset measures the total volume of ice in glaciers greater than one hectare in area throughout New Zealand between 1978 and 2020.

Glaciers are iconic indicators of climate change (Mackintosh et al., 2017). Glacier fluctuations are amongst the clearest signals of climate change because glaciers are highly sensitive indicators of the earth’s surface energy balance (Chinn, 1996). The amount of loss seen in two recent extreme mass-loss events for New Zealand glaciers was more likely to have occurred due to anthropogenic climate change (Vargo et al., 2020).

Glaciers provide an important natural resource that supports power generation, primary production, and water resources. Glaciers act as a reservoir of water and are vital for plants and animals dependent on downstream rivers and lakes, particularly throughout drier seasons. Glaciers regulate downstream water temperature, which is important for many aquatic species, including Taonga species. Changes to ice storage and melting can affect ecological and hydropower resources downstream, as well as important cultural values and tourism. Melting glaciers also add to coastal sea level rise, further contributing to the impacts of climate change.

Climate change is causing summer snowlines to rise and glaciers to retreat. A recent survey of all glacier ice in New Zealand found that the North Island glaciers had declined in area by 25 percent since 1988. For glaciers situated close to the limits of where they can exist, like those on Mt Ruapehu (the only North Island glacierised site today), even moderate warming scenarios predicted for the coming decades may lead to their extinction (Eaves & Brook, 2020). Mt Ruapehu is in the Tongariro National Park, which has been awarded UNESCO World Heritage status for its cultural and natural values. Ruapehu’s glaciers serve as a cultural reference point for local iwi. For example, the Whangaehu River, which has been recognised as indivisible and a living being, emerges from the Whangaehu Glacier on the east flank of Mt Ruapehu. The loss of glaciers will have a negative impact on culture and historical kōrero.

Between 1978 and 2020 the total volume of glacial ice in New Zealand decreased by 35 percent and the rate of annual loss increased.

The total volume of ice in glaciers in New Zealand decreased from 53.3km3 in 1978 to 34.6km3 in 2020.

The highest annual ice loss occurred in 2018 with 2.7km3 lost. The second highest annual ice loss occurred in both 2019 and 2011, with 2.5km3 lost.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf. Summary report available at environment.govt.nz/publications/environment-aotea....

References

Chinn, T. J. (1996). New Zealand glacier responses to climate change of the past century. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 39(3), 415–428. ++doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1996.9514723++

Eaves, S. R., & Brook, M. S. (2020). Glaciers and glaciation of North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 64(1), 1–20. ++doi.org/10.1080/00288306.2020.1811354++

Mackintosh, A. N., Anderson, B. M., Lorrey, A. M., Renwick, J. A., Frei, P., & Dean, S. M. (2017). Regional cooling caused recent New Zealand glacier advances in a period of global warming. Nature Communications, 8(1). ++doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14202++

Vargo, L. J., Anderson, B. M., Dadić, R., Horgan, H. J., Mackintosh, A. N., King, A. D., & Lorrey, A. M. (2020). Anthropogenic warming forces extreme annual glacier mass loss. Nature Climate Change, 10(9), 856–861. ++doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-0849-2++

Table ID 109668
Data type Table
Row count 43
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

River water quality: Escherichia coli, state, 2016 - 2020

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

474
2
Added
11 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "River water quality: Escherichia coli" indicator (available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/river-water-quality-e...).

This dataset contains one parameter of water quality based on measurements made at monitored river sites:

  • Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli in river waters is one of five parameters that provide an overview of New Zealand’s river water quality and how it is changing over time.

This dataset includes:

  • E. coli concentrations measured at monitoring sites for New Zealand’s river length for the period 2016–2020
  • A comparison of measured E. coli concentrations at monitored sites with the proportion of human modified landcover in the upstream catchment area
  • predicted risk of Campylobacter infection, as shown by the median concentration, 95th percentile and percentage of results above 260 and 540 colony forming units per 100 millilitres (cfu/100 mL) compared to the National Objectives Framework (NOF) bands related to human contact

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Summary report available at environment.govt.nz/publications/environment-aotea....

Table ID 109661
Data type Table
Row count 10970
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

River water quality: Escherichia coli, trends, 1991 - 2020

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

428
1
Added
11 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "River water quality: Escherichia coli" indicator (available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/river-water-quality-e...).

This dataset contains one parameter of water quality based on measurements made at monitored river sites:

  • Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli in river waters is one of five parameters that provide an overview of New Zealand’s river water quality and how it is changing over time.

This dataset includes:

  • trends in concentrations of E. coli based on measurements made at monitoring sites during the 10-year period from 2011 to 2020, the 20-year period from 2001 to 2020, and the 30-year period from 1991 to 2020.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Summary report available at environment.govt.nz/publications/environment-aotea....

Table ID 109662
Data type Table
Row count 7550
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

River water quality: Escherichia coli, flow adjusted trends, 1991 - 2020

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

388
0
Added
11 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "River water quality: Escherichia coli" indicator (available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/river-water-quality-e...).

This dataset contains one parameter of water quality based on measurements made at monitored river sites:

  • Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli in river waters is one of five parameters that provide an overview of New Zealand’s river water quality and how it is changing over time.

This dataset includes:

  • adjusted trends in concentrations of E. coli based on measurements made at monitoring sites during the 10-year period from 2011 to 2020, the 20-year period from 2001 to 2020, and the 30-year period from 1991 to 2020.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Summary report available at environment.govt.nz/publications/environment-aotea....

Table ID 109664
Data type Table
Row count 7484
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

River water quality: Escherichia coli, modelled, 2016 - 2020

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

618
6
Added
11 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "River water quality: Escherichia coli" indicator (available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/river-water-quality-e...).

This dataset contains one parameter of water quality based on modelled data for rivers:

  • Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli in river waters is one of five parameters that provide an overview of New Zealand’s river water quality and how it is changing over time.

This dataset includes:

  • E. coli concentrations modelled for New Zealand’s river segments without monitor sites for the period 2016–2020

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Summary report available at environment.govt.nz/publications/environment-aotea....

Note that this is a large dataset so is provided as a shapefile, and will need a GIS application to view.

Layer ID 109886
Data type Vector linestring
Feature count 2373492
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

River water quality: Macroinvertebrate community index, flow adjusted trends, 1991 - 2020

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

393
1
Added
11 Aug 2022

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Aug 2022.

Adapted by Ministry for the Environment and Statistics New Zealand to provide for environmental reporting transparency. Dataset used to develop the "River water quality: macroinvertebrate community index" indicator (available at www.stats.govt.nz/indicators/river-water-quality-m...).

Benthic macroinvertebrates are small animals without backbones (for example, insects and worms). They live on and under submerged logs, rocks, and aquatic plants on the beds of rivers and streams during some part of their life cycle. Macroinvertebrates play a central role in stream ecosystems by feeding on periphyton (algae), macrophytes (aquatic plants), dead leaves and wood, or on each other. In turn, they are an important food source for fish and birds.

The macroinvertebrate community index (MCI) is used as an indicator of water quality and overall stream health. It is one of five parameters that provide an overview of New Zealand’s River water quality and how it is changing over time. This data shows:

  • trends in median MCI scores for the 10-year period from 2011 to 2020, the 20-year period from 2001 to 2020, and the 30-year period from 1991 to 2020.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf. Summary report available atenvironment.govt.nz/publications/environment-aotea... .

Table ID 109671
Data type Table
Row count 7234
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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