Carbon monoxide concentrations, 1996–17

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1568
20
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas formed by the incomplete combustion of fuels, particularly from motor vehicles, from burning wood and coal, and using unflued gas heaters for home heating. It also occurs naturally; for example, from wild fires.
Carbon monoxide can affect human health by interfering with the blood’s ability to carry oxygen and by aggravating heart conditions. It has a relatively long life in the atmosphere – about three months. This is due to the slow rate at which carbon monoxide oxidises, forming carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). Carbon monoxide also has an important role in forming smog.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98415
Data type Table
Row count 2922098
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Total suspended particulate matter concentrations at Penrose, Auckland, 1965–16

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1464
2
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) consists of solid and liquid airborne particles that are smaller than 100 micrometres in diameter. Although, by weight, it is dominated by the larger particles it does also include the PM10 and PM2.5 sub-fractions that are responsible for most health effects, such as respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. TSP can be emitted from earthworks, construction and roadworks, and the combustion of fuels such as wood and coal (eg, from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles).
Natural TSP sources include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash.
TSP consists of airborne particles up to 100 micrometres (μm) in diameter (PM100). TSP is small enough to be inhaled; however, larger particles (10–100μm) are filtered out in the nasal cavity and are often relatively harmless.
TSP can be emitted from earthworks, construction, and roadworks, and from combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg, home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of TSP include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. TSP also forms from reactions in the atmosphere between gases or between gases and other particles.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98422
Data type Table
Row count 2658
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM10 concentrations, 2006–17

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1575
28
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 particles have a diameter less than 10 micrometres. Coarse particles (2.5–10 micrometres) can be inhaled – they generally deposit in the upper airways; fine particles (smaller than 2.5 micrometres) can deposit deep in the lungs where air-gas exchange occurs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung issues have a higher risk of health problems from exposure to PM10. These problems include decreased lung function, heart attack, and mortality.
Human-generated PM10 sources include burning wood and coal for home heating, and traffic emissions (eg combustion, tyre and brake wear, and pavement breakdown). Natural sources include sea salt, dust, pollen, and mould spores.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98414
Data type Table
Row count 209964
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Air pollutant emissions

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2151
32
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

An emissions inventory provides information on the amount of key air pollutants that are released into the atmosphere for a given location over a given time period. This enables us to identify sources of pollutants. By understanding the amounts that different sources contribute, air quality can be better managed and modelled.
We evaluated emissions for five key pollutants for 2015, the most-recent year that data were readily available: particulate matter (PM) less than 10 micrometres in diameter (PM10), PM less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulphur dioxide (SO2), because they are the most important pollutants in New Zealand.
The grouped sources include: energy-related activities, construction dust, road dust, industrial process emissions (non-combustion), agriculture (emissions from animal housing), vegetation fires (burning agricultural residue and biomass burning), and incinerating of hazardous waste.
Only human-generated emissions were included in this emission inventory. No updated data for residential wood burning were available and was assumed to be the same as the 2013 national inventory.

Table ID 98424
Data type Table
Row count 26
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Natural sources of particulate matter, 2000–16

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1703
11
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) is made up of solid and liquid particles in the air. It is grouped according to its size – PM10 is less than 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter; PM2.5 is less than 2.5 µm in diameter. Health effects from exposure to PM include lung and cardiac disease, and premature death.
Natural sources of PM include sea salt, dust (airborne soil, also called crustal material), secondary sulphate, pollen, black carbon from wild fires, and volcanic ash. There is little evidence that sea salt particles themselves are harmful (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) although whether sea salt that has interacted with urban air pollutants is harmful is not known. PM can also be produced by human activities, such as dust from construction or unsealed roads, but this is not considered natural because it comes from human activity.
Natural sources of PM are important because although they cannot be managed they still contribute to ambient concentrations, which are subject to the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality (NESAQ). Exceedances of the NESAQ occur when the 24-hour average PM10 concentration exceeds 50 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). There is no NESAQ for PM2.5 exposure, so we report on exceedances of the WHO 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration guideline (25 µg/m3).
We report on data from nine sites from 2005–16 and report only on sea salt for natural PM because other sources of natural PM, such as dust and sulphate, can be generated by humans as well. We were not able to separate the natural from human-generated contributions. Analysis of particle size, composition, and sources in New Zealand shows that sea salt made the largest contribution to natural PM.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98425
Data type Table
Row count 13484
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM2.5 concentrations, 2008–17

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665
17
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

PM2.5 is made up of solid and liquid particles in the air with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometres. In New Zealand, most PM2.5 in the air results from combustion (burning wood for home heating, motor-vehicle exhaust), and to a lesser extent, particles formed from reactions in the atmosphere (secondary PM) and naturally occurring sea salt.
Short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5, even at low levels, is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of premature death, especially in vulnerable people (the young, the elderly, and people with respiratory illness). Emerging evidence points to possible links with cognitive function, neuro-development, and diabetes.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98413
Data type Table
Row count 33750
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Benzene concentrations in Hamilton, 2003–16

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1444
2
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Benzene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is common in the air. Motor vehicles are benzene’s primary emission source (Guerreiro, Foltescu, & de Leeuw, 2014; Weisel, 2010) although burning wood or coal for home heating, volcanoes, and forest fires also emit benzene.
Benzene is a human carcinogen (World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe Copenhagen, 2000) that has been shown to cause leukaemia (Smith, 2010), and is associated with developmental, immune, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory problems (Bahadar, Mostafalou, & Abdollahi, 2014). Acute exposure can affect the liver and respiration (Bahadar et al, 2014).
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98412
Data type Table
Row count 71
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Nitrogen dioxide concentrations: New Zealand Transport Agency data, 2010–16

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1788
19
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas that is harmful to human health, ecosystems, and plants (US EPA, 2008). It can be emitted directly into the air but is often formed as a secondary pollutant when nitric oxide (NO) emissions react with other chemicals. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) and ozone, which have their own health impacts. In New Zealand, motor vehicles are the main human-made source of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the collective term for NO2 and NO. Because nitrogen dioxide concentrations are closely associated with vehicle emissions, it can be used as a proxy for other motor-vehicle pollutants such as benzene, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.
Human exposure to high nitrogen dioxide concentrations causes inflammation of the airways and respiratory problems, particularly asthma. Nitrogen dioxide causes leaf injury in plants exposed to high levels. It also contributes to forming secondary particulate matter and ozone, which have their own health impacts.
We report on observed nitrogen dioxide concentrations from the New Zealand Transport Agency’s (NZTA) monitoring network. NZTA has comprehensive coverage across New Zealand.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98426
Data type Table
Row count 828
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Health impacts of PM10, 2006 & 2016

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1742
8
Added
17 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 17 Oct 2018.

PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometres in diameter) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 can be inhaled and the largest particles in this size fraction are deposited in the upper airways, while the smaller ones can deposit deep in the lungs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung problems have a higher risk of health effects from PM10 exposure. Health effects include decreased lung function or heart attack, and mortality.
We report on the modelled number of premature deaths for adults (30+ years), hospitalisations, and restricted activity days for people of all ages for years 2006 and 2016 only. The model only includes impacts that result from exposure to PM10 that comes from human activities.
We focus on PM10 from human activities because these sources can be managed, unlike PM from natural sources such as sea salt.
• Premature deaths are those, often preventable, occurring before a person reaches the age they could be expected to live to.
• Hospitalisations relate to those for respiratory and cardiac illnesses (not including cases leading to premature death).
• Restricted activity days occur when symptoms are sufficient to limit usual activities such as work or study. These days aren’t shared evenly across the population – people with asthma or other respiratory conditions would likely have more restricted activity days.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98462
Data type Table
Row count 12
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Soil quality and land use, 1995–2017

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2573
42
Added
16 Apr 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Apr 2018.

Soil supports the productivity of agriculture, horticulture, and forestry, and filters water to help prevent waterways from becoming contaminated. Different land uses put pressure on the land environment and can change soil quality. Soil quality is assessed under four different groups of land uses: forestry, cropping and horticulture, dairy, and dry stock by measuring the following soil properties: acidity (pH), fertility (Olsen P), organic reserves (total carbon, total nitrogen, mineralisable nitrogen), and physical status (macroporosity and bulk density). Soil scientists have identified the target range for each of these indicators, for maintaining production but with a prime focus for managing risk to the environment.

This measure reports on soil quality, by land use and soil order.

Table ID 95345
Data type Table
Row count 1179
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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