Lightning_GroundStrikes_by_Region

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4544
75
Updated
24 Feb 2017

This dataset was last updated on MfE Data Service on 24 Feb 2017.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms. Ground strikes can cause significant damage to property and infrastructure, and injure or kill people and livestock. Lightning is often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.
This dataset relates to the "Lightning" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Layer ID 53558
Data type Vector point
Feature count 621924
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Number of extreme weather events identified by ICNZ (1975–2014)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2757
43
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

Extreme weather events are weather events that are rare or even statistically unlikely. In New Zealand, such events can be dangerous and costly, both socially and monetarily. They can cause damage that affects productivity and leads to millions of dollars in insurance claims.
This dataset relates to the "Insurance losses for extreme weather events" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52586
Data type Table
Row count 129
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Days with wind gusts greater than gale force (1975–13)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2426
35
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

Strong wind events can cause significant damage, for example, to trees and buildings. They can occur with frontal weather systems and around strong convection events, such as thunderstorms. Global climate change may change the frequency of damaging wind events in almost all areas in New Zealand in winter and decrease the frequency in summer. Monitoring can help us gauge the potential of, and prepare for, such events.
Further information can be found in:
Tait, A, Macara, G, & Paul, V. (2014) Preparation of climate datasets for the 2015 Environmental Synthesis Report: Temperature, Rainfall, Wind, Sunshine and Soil Moisture. Prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/Fwn9AL on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice (data.mfe.govt.nz/).
This dataset relates to the "Occurrence of potentially damaging wind" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52585
Data type Table
Row count 8203
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning by region

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2496
15
Added
11 Nov 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 11 Nov 2016.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms. Ground strikes can cause significant damage to property and infrastructure, and injure or kill people and livestock. Lightning is often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.
This dataset relates to the "Lightning" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 53515
Data type Table
Row count 621924
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning strike density, 2000–14

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1393
24
Added
10 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 10 Feb 2016.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity, from thunderstorms, that equalises areas of positive and negative charge, for example, between a storm cloud and the ground. Thunderstorms form as a result of rapidly rising air with a high moisture content (humidity). On average, 1 in 10 lightning discharges strikes the ground (or sea) (Metservice, 2015). Lightning (and therefore thunderstorms) are also often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts, and in extreme cases tornadoes.

By international standards, lightning does not occur frequently around New Zealand. However, thunderstorms, and thus lightning, can cause injury and damage (Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, 2010), and may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change (Mullen et. al., 2011).

This data shows the average annual number of lightning strikes per 25km square.

This dataset relates to the "Lightning" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: grid/point

Unit: strikes/25km2/year

Further information can be found in:

MetService (nd). Lightning observation services. Accessed 3 June 2015 from www.metservice.com.

Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (2010). Thunderstorms. Working from the same page: Consistent messages for CDEM (p3). Available from www.civildefence.govt.nz.

Mullan, B, Carey-Smith, T, Griffiths, G, & Sood, A (2011). Scenarios of storminess and regional wind extremes under climate change. NIWA Client Report: WLG2010-31 (pvii). Available from www.niwa.co.nz.

Layer ID 52851
Data type Grid
Resolution 5000.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning recorders

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4466
26
Added
18 Feb 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 18 Feb 2016.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms. Ground strikes can cause significant damage to property and infrastructure, and injure or kill people and livestock. Lightning is often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.

This dataset shows the location of sensors in the New Zealand Lightning Detection Network (NZLDN), run by MetService.

Sensors around the country detect lightning over the New Zealand land mass and a short distance out to sea. These sensors detect very accurately the electrical discharge, location, and time, as well as noting other parameters such as current strength. The NZLDN records both cloud-to-cloud and cloud-to-ground strikes.

Layer ID 53312
Data type Vector point
Feature count 10
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual ground and sea lightning strikes (2001–14)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2318
15
Added
01 Oct 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 01 Oct 2015.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms. Ground strikes can cause significant damage to property and infrastructure, and injure or kill people and livestock. Lightning is often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.
This dataset relates to the "Lightning" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52587
Data type Table
Row count 15
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning strikes, 2001–2016

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

2683
95
Added
16 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2017.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms and can occur within a cloud, between clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. By international standards, lightning does not occur frequently around New Zealand. However, ground strikes can injure or kill people and livestock, damage property and infrastructure, and, although rarely in New Zealand, spark forest fires. Thunderstorms are often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts and hail. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89470
Data type Table
Row count 2903389
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Extreme wind, 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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2483
41
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

Extreme wind annual statistics for 30 regionally representative sites. The number of days with a maximum gust in the 99th percentile provides information on the frequency of extreme wind events. Percentiles are obtained from all available daily maximum wind gust data. On average, the 99th percentile daily maximum wind gust will be exceeded on approximately 3.6 days per year. Therefore, annual counts higher than this indicate more days than usual with very strong wind gusts recorded; annual counts lower than 3.6 indicate fewer strong wind gust days than usual. By using a percentile threshold we can identify events that are extreme for a particular location. Some places are naturally subject to stronger winds than others, so vegetation can become ‘wind-hardened’ and may have a higher tolerance to high wind gusts (eg a 100 km/hr wind gust may be damaging at one location, but not at another). Using a relative threshold accounts for these differences and better captures extreme wind gust occurrences. The highest maximum gust per year and the average annual highest maximum wind gust both provide information on the magnitude of extreme wind events.
Steady wind can be an important resource, but strong gusts can damage property, topple trees, and disrupt transportation, communications, and electricity. Extreme wind events can occur with frontal weather systems, around strong convective storms such as thunderstorms, and with ex-tropical cyclones. Projections indicate climate change may alter the occurrence of extreme wind events, with the strength of extreme winds expected to increase over the southern half of the North Island and the South Island, especially east of the Southern Alps, and decrease from Northland to Bay of Plenty. Monitoring can help us gauge the potential of, and prepare for, such events.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89425
Data type Table
Row count 1327
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Lightning Trends, 2001–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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2286
4
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Lightning is the discharge of electricity from thunderstorms and can occur within a cloud, between clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. By international standards, lightning does not occur frequently around New Zealand. However, ground strikes can injure or kill people and livestock, damage property and infrastructure, and, although rarely in New Zealand, spark forest fires. Thunderstorms are often associated with other severe weather events, such as strong wind gusts and hail. Thunderstorms may increase in frequency and intensity with climate change.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89427
Data type Table
Row count 1
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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