Southern Annular Mode annual values, 1887–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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6074
33
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

A consistent band of westerly wind flows across the Southern Hemisphere and circles the South Pole. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) describes how this band moves, either north towards the equator (negative phase) or south towards Antarctica (positive phase). A negative phase typically causes increased westerlies, unsettled weather, and storms in New Zealand. A phase can last several weeks, but changes can be rapid and unpredictable.
The SAM is one of three climate oscillations that affect our weather. The resulting changes in air pressure, sea temperature, and wind direction can last for weeks to decades, depending on the oscillation.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89383
Data type Table
Row count 168
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in PED, 1972/3–2015/6

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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5425
3
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Trends in potential evapostranspiration deficit (PED), 1972–2016.
Soil moisture is vital for plant growth. When plants cannot access the water they need, growth is reduced, affecting crops and food for livestock, and native biodiversity. Over a sustained period, a drought can have significant social and economic costs, particularly for rural communities.
Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED) can be thought of as a drought index. It is the difference between how much water could potentially be lost from the soil through evapotranspiration and how much is actually available. When PED is high, plants do not have the full amount of water available they need for growth. PED is measured in growing seasons (the 12 months from 1 July to 30 June of the following year. Data covers each of the growing seasons from 1 July 1972, with the last growing season in the series ending on 30 June 2016.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89438
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED), 1972–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

7946
50
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Interpolated PED values at 30 regionally representative sites.
Soil moisture is vital for plant growth. When plants cannot access the water they need, growth is reduced, affecting crops and food for livestock, and native biodiversity. Over a sustained period, a drought can have significant social and economic costs, particularly for rural communities.
Potential evapotranspiration deficit (PED) can be thought of as a drought index. It is the difference between how much water could potentially be lost from the soil through evapotranspiration and how much is actually available. When PED is high, plants do not have the full amount of water available they need for growth. PED is measured in growing seasons (the 12 months from 1 July to 30 June of the following year. Data covers each of the growing seasons from 1 July 1972, with the last growing season in the series ending on 30 June 2016. More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89437
Data type Table
Row count 1320
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Trends in percent of annual rainfall in the 95th percentile (r95ptot), 1960–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

5146
10
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Trends in percent of annual rainfall in the 95th percentile (r95ptot), 1960–2016.
Intense rainfall can result in flash floods or land slips that damage homes and property, disrupt transportation, and endanger lives. It can also interfere with recreation and increase erosion. Changes to the frequency of intense rainfall events can alter biodiversity.
Trend direction was assessed using the Theil-Sen estimator and the Two One-Sided Test (TOST) for equivalence at the 95% confidence level.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89434
Data type Table
Row count 30
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Rainfall Intensity, 1960–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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5546
80
Added
13 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 13 Oct 2017.

Two measures of rainfall intensity - percent of annual precipitation in the 95th percentile (r95ptot) and annual maximum one-day rainfall (rx1day).
Intense rainfall can result in flash floods or land slips that damage homes and property, disrupt transportation, and endanger lives. It can also interfere with recreation and increase erosion. Changes to the frequency of intense rainfall events can alter biodiversity.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89435
Data type Table
Row count 1710
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Ozone hole, 1979–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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6557
64
Added
14 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2017.

Ozone is a gas that forms a naturally occurring layer in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere), protecting Earth from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) light. The ozone hole is an area of reduced stratospheric ozone. It forms in spring over Antarctica because of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) produced from human activities. The ozone hole has started to shrink due to the phase-out of ODSs, and it is possible that it will cease to form by the middle of this century.
The ozone hole does not have a large effect on the concentration of ozone over New Zealand. However, when the ozone hole breaks up in spring, it can send ‘plumes’ of ozone-depleted air over New Zealand. Reporting on the state of the ozone hole helps us understand the state of ozone concentrations globally.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89466
Data type Table
Row count 37
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual sea surface temperature difference from normal, 2014

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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4370
4
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

The oceans store most of the excess energy accumulated due to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere warming the surface layer. These long-term increases in temperature caused by climate change are in addition to natural variability where ocean temperatures change in response to climate oscillations like the El Niño Southern Oscillation.
Changes in sea-surface temperatures can affect marine processes, environments, and species. Some species may shift range or find it hard to survive in changing environmental conditions. Warmer water also takes up more space, which contributes to sea-level rise.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Layer ID 89394
Data type Grid
Resolution About 4548.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual sea surface temperature difference from normal, 2015

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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You must attribute the creator in your own works.

4510
7
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

The oceans store most of the excess energy accumulated due to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere warming the surface layer. These long-term increases in temperature caused by climate change are in addition to natural variability where ocean temperatures change in response to climate oscillations like the El Niño Southern Oscillation.
Changes in sea-surface temperatures can affect marine processes, environments, and species. Some species may shift range or find it hard to survive in changing environmental conditions. Warmer water also takes up more space, which contributes to sea-level rise.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Layer ID 89395
Data type Grid
Resolution About 4548.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Annual sea surface temperature difference from normal, 2016

Licence

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

You may use this work for commercial purposes.

You must attribute the creator in your own works.

5548
16
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

The oceans store most of the excess energy accumulated due to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere warming the surface layer. These long-term increases in temperature caused by climate change are in addition to natural variability where ocean temperatures change in response to climate oscillations like the El Niño Southern Oscillation.
Changes in sea-surface temperatures can affect marine processes, environments, and species. Some species may shift range or find it hard to survive in changing environmental conditions. Warmer water also takes up more space, which contributes to sea-level rise.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Layer ID 89396
Data type Grid
Resolution About 4548.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Oceanic sea surface temperature, 1993–2016

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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5689
54
Added
12 Oct 2017

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 12 Oct 2017.

We used NIWA’s sea-surface temperature archive, which is derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data it receives from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The archive provides high spatial (approximately 1km) and high temporal (approximately six-hourly in cloud-free locations) resolution estimates of sea-surface temperatures over the New Zealand region, dating from January 1993. Uddstrom & Oien (1999) and Uddstrom (2003) describe the methods used to derive and validate the data.
Our data extends from about 30°S to 55°S, and from 160°E to 170°W and is grouped into five areas: the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), the Chatham Rise, northern subtropical waters, subantarctic waters, and the Tasman Sea.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 89406
Data type Table
Row count 960
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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