Ground-level ozone concentrations, Auckland, 2001–16

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3251
18
Updated
20 Nov 2019

This dataset was last updated on MfE Data Service on 20 Nov 2019.

Ground-level (tropospheric) ozone (O3) exists at a natural background level but is also produced when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds from vehicle emissions, petrol fumes, industrial processes solvents, and other human-made sources react in the presence of sunlight. It is the primary component of photochemical smog.
Ozone also occurs naturally in the stratosphere, where it protects us from ultraviolet radiation – this ozone occasionally can mix downwards to ground level.
Because sunlight and warmth are required for the chemical reactions that form ground-level ozone, peak concentrations often occur in summer when daylight hours are longer and temperatures are higher. Since the precursors for ozone can travel downwind from their sources before they react with sunlight, ozone concentrations can be high many kilometres from the precursor emissions’ sources.
Exposure to high concentrations of ozone can cause respiratory health problems and is linked to cardiovascular health problems and mortality. It can also damage vegetation.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98423
Data type Table
Row count 535064
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM10 concentrations by site 2006–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5248
54
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of PM10 include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. Nationally, burning wood or coal for home heating is the main human-made source of PM10.

PM10 is of particular concern because it is found in high concentrations in some areas and can damage health. It is associated with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)
- In_indicat = included in analyses (1= yes, 0 = no)

This dataset relates to the "PM10 annual average concentrations" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52437
Data type Table
Row count 616
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Relative contribution of key sources

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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4898
17
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Burning wood and coal for home heating, road motor vehicle use, industrial activities, and household outdoor burning are the key human-made sources of air pollutants in New Zealand. These pollutants have a range of health effects.
Measuring the relative contribution of each source helps us understand their pressures on our air quality. It also provides context for changes in emissions from individual sources. For example, from 2006 to 2013, PM10 emissions from road motor vehicles decreased 25 percent. However, this source contributed only 9 percent of the total national PM10 emissions from the four key sources. Therefore, this decrease in PM10 emissions from road motor vehicles likely had only a minor effect on total PM10 emissions.

Daily winter emissions and annual average emissions are presented as there is strong seasonality in emissions. Daily winter contributions were also assessed because this is the timeframe used by WHO and in national standards and winter months is when concentrations in excess of the standards most frequently occur.

This dataset relates to the "Relative contribution of key human-made emission sources" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Further information can be found in Environet and Golders Associates (2015). Home heating emission inventory and other sources evaluation. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/a5FAw6 on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice.

Table ID 52434
Data type Table
Row count 40
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Relative contribution of other sources

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5158
10
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Other human-made sources – such as aviation, forestry, and non-combustion industrial activities (eg grinding and crushing) – generally emit relatively small amounts of key air pollutants. Comparing their contribution to air pollution helps us understand the pressures they place on our air quality.

Other human-made sources of air pollution include but are not limited to:
- transport emissions from aviation, off-road motor vehicles, rail, and shipping transport activities
- non-combustion emissions from industry, such as process emissions (eg milk driers) and activities that involve abrasive and mechanical processes (eg grinding and crushing)
- agricultural and forestry activities, such as logging activities and agricultural burning.

This dataset relates to the "Relative contribution of other human-made emissions" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52436
Data type Table
Row count 20
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Absolute contribution of key sources

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5201
24
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

Burning wood and coal for home heating, road motor vehicle use, industrial activities, and household outdoor burning are the key human-made sources of air pollutants in New Zealand. These pollutants have a range of health effects.
Measuring the contribution of each source helps us understand their pressures on our air quality. It also provides context for changes in emissions from individual sources. For example, from 2006 to 2013, PM10 emissions from road motor vehicles decreased 25 percent. However, this source contributed only 9 percent of the total national PM10 emissions from the four key sources. Therefore, this decrease in PM10 emissions from road motor vehicles likely had only a minor effect on total PM10 emissions.

Daily winter emissions and annual average emissions are presented as there is strong seasonality in emissions. Daily winter contributions were also assessed because this is the timeframe used by WHO and in national standards and winter months is when concentrations in excess of the standards most frequently occur.

This dataset relates to the "Relative contribution of key human-made emission sources" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Further information can be found in Environet and Golders Associates (2015). Home heating emission inventory and other sources evaluation. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment. Available at data.mfe.govt.nz/x/a5FAw6 on the Ministry for the Environment dataservice.

Table ID 52446
Data type Table
Row count 40
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM10 concentrations, 2006–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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3899
60
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) comprises solid and liquid particles in the air. PM10 particles have a diameter less than 10 micrometres. Coarse particles (2.5–10 micrometres) can be inhaled – they generally deposit in the upper airways; fine particles (smaller than 2.5 micrometres) can deposit deep in the lungs where air-gas exchange occurs. Children, the elderly, and people with existing heart or lung issues have a higher risk of health problems from exposure to PM10. These problems include decreased lung function, heart attack, and mortality.
Human-generated PM10 sources include burning wood and coal for home heating, and traffic emissions (eg combustion, tyre and brake wear, and pavement breakdown). Natural sources include sea salt, dust, pollen, and mould spores.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98414
Data type Table
Row count 209964
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Natural sources of particulate matter, 2000–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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4731
15
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Particulate matter (PM) is made up of solid and liquid particles in the air. It is grouped according to its size – PM10 is less than 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter; PM2.5 is less than 2.5 µm in diameter. Health effects from exposure to PM include lung and cardiac disease, and premature death.
Natural sources of PM include sea salt, dust (airborne soil, also called crustal material), secondary sulphate, pollen, black carbon from wild fires, and volcanic ash. There is little evidence that sea salt particles themselves are harmful (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) although whether sea salt that has interacted with urban air pollutants is harmful is not known. PM can also be produced by human activities, such as dust from construction or unsealed roads, but this is not considered natural because it comes from human activity.
Natural sources of PM are important because although they cannot be managed they still contribute to ambient concentrations, which are subject to the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality (NESAQ). Exceedances of the NESAQ occur when the 24-hour average PM10 concentration exceeds 50 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3). There is no NESAQ for PM2.5 exposure, so we report on exceedances of the WHO 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration guideline (25 µg/m3).
We report on data from nine sites from 2005–16 and report only on sea salt for natural PM because other sources of natural PM, such as dust and sulphate, can be generated by humans as well. We were not able to separate the natural from human-generated contributions. Analysis of particle size, composition, and sources in New Zealand shows that sea salt made the largest contribution to natural PM.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98425
Data type Table
Row count 13484
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM10 concentrations in towns and cities 2006–13

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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5770
67
Added
02 Dec 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 02 Dec 2015.

Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of PM10 include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. Nationally, burning wood or coal for home heating is the main human-made source of PM10.

PM10 is of particular concern because it is found in high concentrations in some areas and can damage health. It is associated with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer.

Column headings:
- Con_mcg_m3 = Concentration in micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m3)

This dataset relates to the "Annual average PM10 concentrations in towns and cities" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52625
Data type Table
Row count 648
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Emissions from burning wood or coal for home heating 2006 and 2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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6281
31
Added
16 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Sep 2015.

In 2013, 37 percent of homes burned wood and 4 percent burned coal for heating. Burning wood or coal for home heating emits a range of air pollutants. It is the main human-made source of particulate matter and a significant contributor of carbon monoxide. Exposure to these pollutants can damage health, with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer.

The proportions of homes using wood or coal for heating vary around the country. Generally, the use of wood and coal for home heating is greater in the South Island than in the North Island. The West Coast has the highest proportion (72 percent use wood, 56 percent use coal), while in contrast Auckland has lower usage (23 percent use wood and 2 percent use coal). Burning wood or coal for home heating continues to be associated with air quality issues, including high levels of PM10, PM2.5, arsenic, and benzo(a)pyrene at some locations.

This dataset relates to the "Home-heating emissions" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52451
Data type Table
Row count 20
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Carbon monoxide concentrations, 1996–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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5652
41
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas formed by the incomplete combustion of fuels, particularly from motor vehicles, from burning wood and coal, and using unflued gas heaters for home heating. It also occurs naturally; for example, from wild fires.
Carbon monoxide can affect human health by interfering with the blood’s ability to carry oxygen and by aggravating heart conditions. It has a relatively long life in the atmosphere – about three months. This is due to the slow rate at which carbon monoxide oxidises, forming carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). Carbon monoxide also has an important role in forming smog.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98415
Data type Table
Row count 2922098
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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