Sulphur dioxide concentrations, 2008–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1904
26
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a highly reactive gas formed when fuels containing sulphur, such as coal or petrochemical products (including high-sulphur ship fuel), are burned. It is also produced from industrial processes such as superphosphate fertiliser production and smelting sulphur-containing metal ores. Geothermal and volcanic gases are the main natural sources of sulphur dioxide.
When inhaled, sulphur dioxide is associated with respiratory problems such as bronchitis. It can aggravate the symptoms of asthma and chronic lung disease and cause irritation to eyes. On days with higher sulphur dioxide levels, hospital admissions for cardiac disease and mortality increase. In ecosystems, it can injure vegetation, acidify water and soil, and affect biodiversity.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98421
Data type Table
Row count 554866
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Carbon monoxide concentrations, 1996–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1890
21
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas formed by the incomplete combustion of fuels, particularly from motor vehicles, from burning wood and coal, and using unflued gas heaters for home heating. It also occurs naturally; for example, from wild fires.
Carbon monoxide can affect human health by interfering with the blood’s ability to carry oxygen and by aggravating heart conditions. It has a relatively long life in the atmosphere – about three months. This is due to the slow rate at which carbon monoxide oxidises, forming carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). Carbon monoxide also has an important role in forming smog.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98415
Data type Table
Row count 2922098
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Black carbon concentrations, 2002–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1843
9
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Black carbon is a particle, often in the PM2.5 or ultra-fine size range, which is emitted from combustion sources and is commonly known as soot. In New Zealand most black carbon is emitted from vehicles (especially diesel vehicles), burning wood and coal for home heating, and outdoor burning. Both long and short-term exposure to black carbon is linked to serious health effects, such as respiratory and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature death (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013).
Black carbon warms the climate globally and regionally because it is efficient at absorbing energy from sunlight. Black carbon also increases ice and snow melt when deposited on these surfaces, darkening them and lowering albedo (proportion of light that is reflected) so they absorb more solar energy (Ramanathan & Carmichael, 2008).
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98417
Data type Table
Row count 19077
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Heavy metal concentrations, 2002–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1832
13
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Inhaling particulate matter (PM) containing heavy metals can cause serious health effects (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013). Airborne arsenic is linked to lung cancers (WHO, 2013), and heart, liver, kidney, and nerve damage (Caussy, 2003). Nickel and vanadium are linked to lung and nasal sinus cancers. Lead can impair cognitive function in children and affect an adult’s cardiovascular system, even at low blood levels (WHO, 2013).
Heavy metals are also toxic to other organisms, and can bioaccumulate in animals, especially in aquatic ecosystems (Rahman, Hasegawa, & Lim, 2012). We don’t know how much airborne heavy metal is deposited in New Zealand.
We report on the concentrations of arsenic, lead, and vanadium in PM10 (PM 10 micrometres or less in diameter) from 2007-16 at Henderson – Auckland which were measured using a method directly comparable to relevant guidelines. We also report on arsenic, nickel, lead, and vanadium concentrations at 5 Auckland sites from 2005–16 that were measured using a method which cannot be directly compared to relevant guidelines but provides information on concentrations.
Arsenic is emitted when burning wood treated with copper chromium arsenic preservative (eg building project offcuts). A 2012 Auckland study showed that 17 percent of households may burn such wood (Stones-Havas, 2014).
Lead is emitted from burning wood coated with lead-based paint, by removing lead-based paint from buildings without proper safety precautions, and from industrial discharges (eg at metal smelters). In New Zealand, airborne nickel and vanadium concentrations are highest near ports and are associated with combustion exhaust from ships (Davy & Trompetter, 2018). Monitoring for lead has been limited since the fall in ambient lead concentrations after New Zealand’s petrol became lead free in 1996.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98416
Data type Table
Row count 19077
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Particulate matter exceedences 2006–2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1789
29
Added
09 Dec 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 09 Dec 2015.

"Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. The main sources are burning wood or coal for home heating, and sea spray. PM10 is of particular concern because it is found in high concentrations in some areas. It can damage health and is associated with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer.

This dataset records the number of times that concentrations of PM10 exceed the daily standard for years 2006 to 2013. Field names are Yr_.

Data is broken down by airshed.

This dataset relates to the ""PM10 daily concentrations"" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: Points

Units: No. of days"

Layer ID 52668
Data type Vector point
Feature count 43
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W)

Total suspended particulate matter concentrations at Penrose, Auckland, 1965–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1783
2
Added
16 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 16 Oct 2018.

Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) consists of solid and liquid airborne particles that are smaller than 100 micrometres in diameter. Although, by weight, it is dominated by the larger particles it does also include the PM10 and PM2.5 sub-fractions that are responsible for most health effects, such as respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. TSP can be emitted from earthworks, construction and roadworks, and the combustion of fuels such as wood and coal (eg, from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles).
Natural TSP sources include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash.
TSP consists of airborne particles up to 100 micrometres (μm) in diameter (PM100). TSP is small enough to be inhaled; however, larger particles (10–100μm) are filtered out in the nasal cavity and are often relatively harmless.
TSP can be emitted from earthworks, construction, and roadworks, and from combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg, home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural sources of TSP include sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. TSP also forms from reactions in the atmosphere between gases or between gases and other particles.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98422
Data type Table
Row count 2658
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Benzene concentrations in Hamilton, 2003–16

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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1763
2
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

Benzene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is common in the air. Motor vehicles are benzene’s primary emission source (Guerreiro, Foltescu, & de Leeuw, 2014; Weisel, 2010) although burning wood or coal for home heating, volcanoes, and forest fires also emit benzene.
Benzene is a human carcinogen (World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe Copenhagen, 2000) that has been shown to cause leukaemia (Smith, 2010), and is associated with developmental, immune, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory problems (Bahadar, Mostafalou, & Abdollahi, 2014). Acute exposure can affect the liver and respiration (Bahadar et al, 2014).
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98412
Data type Table
Row count 71
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Particulate matter concentrations 2006–2013

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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1213
46
Added
09 Dec 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 09 Dec 2015.

"Particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter (PM10) in the air comprises solid particles and liquid droplets from both natural and human-made sources. PM10 can be emitted from the combustion of fuels, such as wood and coal (eg from home heating and industry), and petrol and diesel (from vehicles). Natural PM10 includes sea salt, dust, pollen, smoke (from bush fires), and volcanic ash. Nationally, burning wood or coal for home heating is the main human-made source of PM10. PM10 is of particular concern because it is found in high concentrations in some areas and can damage health. It is associated with effects ranging from respiratory irritation to some forms of cancer.

This dataset shows annual average PM10 concentrations for years 2006 to 2013. Field names are PM10_.
This dataset also shows describes whether the PM10 trend, ie, whether concentrations have shown statisticsally significantly increases, decreases, or an indeterminate trend.

Data is broken down by monitoring site.

This dataset relates to the ""Annual average PM10 concentrations in towns and cities"" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Geometry: Points

Units: micrograms/m3"

Layer ID 52667
Data type Vector point
Feature count 44
Services Vector Query API, Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W)

Coastal sea-level rise 1901 - 2018

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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692
15
Added
14 Oct 2019

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2019.

This indicator measures the rise in annual mean coastal sea level relative to land. The national mean is derived from four long-term monitoring locations across New Zealand: Auckland, Wellington, Dunedin and Lyttelton. We also report the trends over time, from the beginning of our records until 2018. Relative sea-level rise includes the vertical land movement of the surrounding area (for example, a sinking landmass increases the rise in ocean sea level).

We report the change in annual mean coastal sea level to 2018 against the established baseline (mean sea level for 1986–2005) for the long-term sites plus an additional two sites: Moturiki (Mount Maunganui) and New Plymouth. These are not included in the national mean due to shorter records. We also measure the national annual sea-level rise for two time periods: the start of the records to 1960, and 1961–2018.

More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 104055
Data type Table
Row count 524
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

PM2.5 concentrations, 2008–17

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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665
17
Added
15 Oct 2018

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 15 Oct 2018.

PM2.5 is made up of solid and liquid particles in the air with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometres. In New Zealand, most PM2.5 in the air results from combustion (burning wood for home heating, motor-vehicle exhaust), and to a lesser extent, particles formed from reactions in the atmosphere (secondary PM) and naturally occurring sea salt.
Short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5, even at low levels, is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of premature death, especially in vulnerable people (the young, the elderly, and people with respiratory illness). Emerging evidence points to possible links with cognitive function, neuro-development, and diabetes.
More information on this dataset and how it relates to our environmental reporting indicators and topics can be found in the attached data quality pdf.

Table ID 98413
Data type Table
Row count 33750
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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