Number of days when wind speed exceeded storm force (Beaufort Scale 10) in 2015

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2965
5
Added
14 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2016.

The ocean storm index estimates the number of days in a year when wind speeds exceed gale and storm force on the Beaufort Scale. In a gale, sea conditions are rough and waves can be over six metres high. In a storm, waves can be over 10 metres high. To put this into context, on land a near gale would make walking difficult, and a storm would cause some damage to roofs, chimneys, and trees. Climate change could lead to changes in the frequency and intensity of storms. More frequent and intense storms will likely be a stressor for habitats and species.
The ocean storm index estimates the number of days that wind speeds exceed gale and storm force on the Beaufort Scale. The Beaufort Scale is a widely used international classification that rates sea conditions from 0 (calm) to 12 (hurricane). We report on estimated wind speeds broken down to:
- gales – measure 8 on the scale, have rough sea conditions with wind speeds of approximately 62–74 km per hour and wave heights of 5.5 metres
- storms – measure 10 on the scale, have wind speeds of approximately 89–102 km per hour and wave heights of 9–11.5 metres (McDonald & Parsons, 2016).
This dataset relates to the number of days when wind speed exceeded storm force (Beaufort Scale 10) in 2015.

Layer ID 53464
Data type Grid
Resolution About 47632.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Estimated annual Salvin's albatross captures in trawl and longline fisheries by fishery type (2003–14)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2950
9
Added
19 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 19 Oct 2016.

Along with sea lions, fur seals, and dolphins, seabirds are the protected species most directly affected by fisheries in New Zealand waters (exclusive economic zone and territorial sea). Estimating seabird deaths from bycatch in commercial fishing is one way of assessing the pressure some seabird species face from current fishing practices. About one-third of our 92 resident seabird species and subspecies are considered to be threatened with extinction. We report on the risk of death from commercial fishing for 70 seabird species and subspecies.
The estimated annual seabird bycatch in trawl and longline fisheries is reported for Salvin’s albatross to illustrate effects on a threatened bird species with a very high risk of fishing-related death.
This data has been significantly revised since that reported in Environment Aotearoa 2015, with the estimated total bycatch of seabirds increasing by nearly 1400 birds (30 %) on average across the comparable years 2002/3 – 2012/13. This revision is due to an updated and more unified modelling approach being applied by the data providers. For further information about this revision please see our Marine domain 2016 webpage or Abraham and Richard (unpublished).

Table ID 53480
Data type Table
Row count 12
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Maximum latitudinal extent of selected key non-indigenous species

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2947
5
Added
23 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 23 Oct 2016.

Marine non-indigenous (exotic) species arrive in New Zealand waters on the hulls of international vessels (biofouling) or in discharged ballast waters. Some have little impact or cannot survive in New Zealand waters; others have a negative impact on our native habitats and species and become pests. They can compete with, and prey on, indigenous species, modify natural habitats, affect marine industries or can alter ecosystem processes. The potential impact of non-indigenous species on our native habitats and species means they could threaten our cultural and natural heritage, as well as economic activities such as commercial and recreational fishing, shellfish harvesting, and aquaculture.
The maximum latitudinal extent is the range between the northern-most and southern-most records of these species.

Table ID 53507
Data type Table
Row count 32
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Fishing effort (number of dredge tows) by year (1990–2014)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2900
38
Added
28 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 28 Sep 2015.

Seabed trawling is the practice of towing fishing nets near or along the ocean floor. The towing process can physically damage seabed (benthic) habitats and species. It can also stir up sediment from the seabed. This creates sediment plumes that change light conditions. This can affect marine species (for example by limiting their capacity to generate energy through photosynthesis) and smother sensitive species.
This dataset relates to the "Commercial seabed trawling and dredging" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52505
Data type Table
Row count 50
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Number of dredge tows (1990–2014)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2927
6
Added
19 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 19 Oct 2016.

Seabed trawling and dredging, when fishing nets or dredges are towed near and along the seabed, can physically damage seabed (benthic) habitats and species. It can also stir up sediment from the seabed, shading (in shallow waters) or smothering marine species. This measure focuses on coastal areas (waters shallower than 250m). Focusing on coastal benthic habitats is important as these face multiple threats (for example from land-based activities) in addition to fishing.

Table ID 53485
Data type Table
Row count 50
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Commercial catch for shark and ray species (2005–12)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2905
15
Added
28 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 28 Sep 2015.

New Zealand waters have at least 113 species of chondrichthyans (sharks, rays, and other cartilaginous fish species). They are particularly vulnerable to overfishing because they are long-lived, mature slowly, and have a low reproductive rate. Chondrichthyans are important for healthy ocean ecosystems, and reporting their commercial catch and bycatch helps us understand the sustainability of our fisheries.
This dataset relates to the "Commercial catch: sharks and rays" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52515
Data type Table
Row count 360
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Area of seabed trawled by depth class (1990–2011)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2892
10
Added
19 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 19 Oct 2016.

Seabed trawling and dredging (where fishing gear is towed near or along the ocean floor) can physically damage seabed (benthic) habitats and species. These fishing methods can also stir up sediment from the seabed, creating sediment plumes that can smother sensitive species. Recovery times for affected habitats and species depend on their sensitivity and the area affected by trawling or dredging. Bottom trawling is carried out on or near the seabed in both shallow and deep waters. Dredging is carried out on the seabed in shallow waters and targets marine creatures such as scallops. This measure focuses on deepwater areas (waters deeper than 200m).

Table ID 53486
Data type Table
Row count 4
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Area of coastal seabed trawled by depth class (2008–12)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2893
8
Added
25 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 25 Oct 2016.

Seabed trawling and dredging, when fishing nets or dredges are towed near and along the seabed, can physically damage seabed (benthic) habitats and species. It can also stir up sediment from the seabed, shading (in shallow waters) or smothering marine species. This measure focuses on coastal areas (waters shallower than 250m). Focusing on coastal benthic habitats is important as these face multiple threats (for example from land-based activities) in addition to fishing.

Table ID 53510
Data type Table
Row count 3
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Estimated fur seal captures in trawl and longline fisheries by fishery type (2003–13)

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2845
13
Added
28 Sep 2015

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 28 Sep 2015.

Sea lions and fur seals are the protected species most directly affected by fisheries in New Zealand waters, along with seabirds and dolphins. Estimating the bycatch of sea lions and fur seals indicates the pressures they face from current fishing practices.
The New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri is classified as not threatened. Its population appears to be increasing and extending back into its historical range (where they were commonly found) (Baker et al, 2010).
The Fisheries Act 1996 designates this species as protected and requires mitigation measures to reduce bycatch (Ministry for Primary Industries, 2014).
This dataset relates to the "Bycatch of protected species: sea lion and fur seal" measure on the Environmental Indicators, Te taiao Aotearoa website.

Table ID 52497
Data type Table
Row count 44
Services Web Feature Service (WFS), Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Primary productivity anomalies, 2015

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand

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2848
4
Added
14 Oct 2016

This dataset was first added to MfE Data Service on 14 Oct 2016.

The average concentration of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) in phytoplankton for 2015.
Concentrations of chl-a in phytoplankton are used to assess primary productivity in our oceans. Phytoplankton are primary producers of biomass (mass of living organisms) and form the main basis of marine food chains. They use the chl-a pigment to capture the sun’s energy through the process of photosynthesis. Phytoplankton growth is affected by the availability of nutrients and light, which in turn are affected by the structure of the surface water column. The surface water column structure is affected by oceanographic and climate processes; large-scale changes to climate and oceanographic conditions can lead to changes in phytoplankton growth and chl-a concentrations.

Layer ID 53460
Data type Grid
Resolution 5000.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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